4. Civil War


* Bolshevik consolidation in power * Decrees, Constituent Assembly and Treaty of Brest- Litovsk * Two sides in Civil War * Key events of Civil War * Reasons for Bolshevik victory
Note by ShreyaDas, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by ShreyaDas almost 10 years ago

Resource summary

Page 1

Bolsheviks took over buildings and government - Nobles, Mensheviks, liberals and the socialist revolutionaries were not happy - Bolsheviks held elections for the Constituent Assembly and the socialist revolutionaries had the most seats Bolsheviks dissolved Constituent Assembly after a day and established a "dictatorship of the proletariat"

Harsh treaty (ring a bell?)Russia lost:- 25% of its population (mainly non-Russian speakers)- 25% of its industry- 90% of its coalmines

Germany had signed an armistice but had delayed making peace because they hoped for a German revolutionLenin sent Trotsky to sign the peace treaty who initially refused to signLater this land belonged to the allies (Germany surrendered) but was not given back (allies were fighting against reds in civil war)

The Bolsheviks had seized power by a coup d’état.   After 1918, their political opponents fought back: Social Revolutionaries ejected from the Assembly, the Mensheviks, the Tsarists, former army officers angry about the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, landlords who had lost their land.

The Bolsheviks had seized power by a coup d’état.   After 1918, their political opponents fought back: Social Revolutionaries ejected from the Assembly, the Mensheviks, the Tsarists, former army officers angry about the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, landlords who had lost their land.

- faced threats from various armies, including the White armies of Yudenich, Denikin and Kolchak and the Green Army of Makhno. - These threats were supplemented by intervention in the form of armed forces and supplies from foreign powers such as Britain, France, the USA and Japan. - However, these formidable threats were successfully met due to the leadership of Trotsky, who set up a strong force known as the Red Army. Moreover, the murder of the tsar and his family removed the main focal point for the opponents of the Bolsheviks.- The WHITES were a very diverse group. They were united only by their hatred of the Reds. There were many rival  White governments, all with different ambitious leaders, and all standing for different political solutions (some were  Czarists ... some were Mensheviks some Social Revolutionaries.) They had little in common with each other, and did  not form a coherent side.   

2.   Czech Legion In 1918 some Czech prisoners of war who were being taken across Russia mutinied, took control of the Trans-Siberian Railway, and attacked towards Moscow.3.   World Opposition to World Revolution The Bolsheviks set up the Comintern, led by Zinoviev.   It said it would cause communist revolutions all over the world.   So foreign countries (also angry because Russia had dropped out of World War I) sent armies to destroy the Bolsheviks  – British, American and French armies attacked from Archangel, Ukraine, and Vladivostock.

That they survived was due to the WHITE failures. That they were eventually able to win was due to the way that  they organised themselves to remedy their own weaknesses, and to capitalize on the mistakes made by their  opponents.

11th November 1917- Krasnov, the Lieutenant General of the Russian army, and his troops wait for reinforcements at Tsarskoe Selo, the site of the former imperial summer palace.The Cadet Uprising: The cadets of Petrograd military schools initiated an uprising, led by G.P. Polkovnikov. They seize the main telephone center and the Mikhailhovsky Manege, as well as other properties.The cadets originally planned to synchronize this attack with Krasnov, but the Red Guards arrested one of the soldiers and used him as a canary. The cadets, as a result moved the date a day forward, which was a mistake, as the Red Guards stopped the uprising in a mere day.13th November 1917- Battle of Pulkovo takes place. Kerensky attempts a counter-offensive attack, which fails.20th December 1917- The VCHEAK is established by the Russians, which is a secret police force.18th January 1918- The Constetuit assembly gathers, and it is demanded by the Bolsheviks that authority should be given to the Soviets, but the assembly refuses. This results in the Bolsheviks and the Left Socialist Revolutionaries leaving.10th February 1918- Trotsky declares that Russia is no longer part of World War I.3rd March 1918- The Red Army withdraws from Kiev because of incoming German troops. As the Russians just signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which officially removed Russia from World War I, the Germans let themselves enter.10th-13th April 1918- Battle of Yekaterinodar takes place.4th-10th July 1918- The Fifth All-Russian Congress of Soviets takes place, and all left socialist revolutionists who participated in the Bolshevik government are now banned from attending.6th July 1918- Angered Left Socialist Revolutionaries stage a revolt in Moscow.16th-17th July 1918- The Bolsheviks, too scared of the tsar and the repercussions of keeping prisoners, shoot the imperial family when white forces and the Czech Legion get too close to Yekaterinderg.25th July 1918- The Czech Legion captures Yekaterinderg.5-7th August 1918- the Czech Legion and People’s Army pool their efforts in order to take Kazan from the Reds, as Kazan opens the door to Moscow.13th August 1918- Battle of Sviyazhsk commences on the easter front, and the Red Army defeats the People’s Army of Komuch.30th August 1918- An attempted murder of Lenin takes place, though he recovers. On the same day, Moses Solomonovich Uritsky is assassinated, causing the Bolsheviks to become paranoid.5-10th September 1918- The Battle of Kazan takes place. 11,000 Red soldiers fight against 6,000 Czech and whites. This results in a win for the Reds.22nd September- 15th October 1918- The Second Battle of Sviyazhsk23rd September-18th November 1918- The Provisional All-Russian Government is created, based at Omsk. It ends after Kolchak, the war minister in the government, ends it.18th January 1919- The Versailles Peace conference commences. Russia is not present as they are busy dealing with the civil war.26th September 1919- The Battle of Peregonavka commences. The White army beats the Black army, but with great losses.January 1920- The Red army leaves Latvia.6th April 1920- The Far Eastern Republic is established, and names Krasnoshchekov as their president. Lenin uses this as an opportunity to get the Japanese out of Russia without risking war.14th-16th August 1920- Battle of Warsaw commences, as a part of the Russo-Polish war. The Red army is defeated.October 1920- The Black army signs a treaty with the Red army, which is a huge threat to the White army.25th October 1920- Japanese troops leave Russia.7th-15th November 1920- Red army and White army fight in a final battle, with the Red army winning once and for all.Thus, the civil war is won by the Reds.

Bolshevik Consolidation in Power

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

Two Sides in Civil War

Key Events of Civil War

Reasons for Bolshevik Victory

Show full summary Hide full summary


OCR GCSE History-Paper Two: The Liberal Reforms 1906-14 Poverty to Welfare State NEW FOR 2015!!!
I Turner
GCSE History – Social Impact of the Nazi State in 1945
Ben C
Weimar Revision
Tom Mitchell
Hitler and the Nazi Party (1919-23)
Adam Collinge
Conferences of the Cold War
Alina A
The Berlin Crisis
Alina A
Bay of Pigs Invasion : April 1961
Alina A
History of Medicine: Ancient Ideas
James McConnell
The Rise of the Nazis
American West - Key Dates
Rachel I-J
Latin Literature Exam Techniques