Development and early childhood - created from Mind Map


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A childs right to development UNCRC 1989 Children 40 Articles of UNCRC UNCRC roots are based on Western ideas Childhood Constructed Re-constructed Child development of different cultures - Beatrice & John Whiting

Discovery of childhood end of 15Cent. Western Society & Industrilisation Schooling Interest of studies of the child Scientific theories

What is child development Growth & Change How does development occur 2 theories Nature or Nuture Nativist Theorist belief Development as experience - Environmentalist’ theories Development by 2 way interactions through child & environment- KANT Rationalism - knowledge is what we have and born with Empiricism - Locke, Berkeley and Hume all knowledge is gained from experience Known as Social Learning theory A 2 way cause & affect - A Transactional Model Constructivist Theory - Piaget Social Constructivist Theory Attached Study AidsNote - Early childhood developmentNote - Early childhood development

4 theories of development varied over periods of history, known as the grand theories CONTRUCTIVISM - Natural stages Behaviourism referred to as learning theory is the emphasis of behaviour is on how we learn to behave in certain ways Social Leaning AS IN EXPERIENCE this theory in contrast to BEHAVIOURISM SOCIAL CONTSTRUCTIVISM is learning by social interaction and not by observation Jean Piaget The 4 successive stages of child progression Piaget suggest that individuals developed mental representations of the environment based on their own actions and the consequences of these. PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENT Schemas Intrinsic Motivation Accommodation Assimilation Equilibration Object Permemance Piaget’s observations baby immations Summary Object Permanence Summary of immation Development as in DISCIPLINE - Generic term for behaviourism is conditioning- reward and punishment 2 forms of conditioning - Classical & operant Classical Operant conditioning Behaviourist viewpoint John B. Watson (1878–1958) - by changing the environment can affect the behaviour - Little Albert - conditioning of fear Frank Skinner - the causes and actions of its consequences The skinner box experiment on rats - reinforcing & punishment Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Punishment is to weaken a response. eg deducting Pocket money ABA Researches outtake for punishment to be affective It must be immediate (contingent), severe and consistently applied Challenges behaviourism, children learn from observation and imitation Bandura Theory 4 related factors to immitate Bandura's experiment Children & Television violence Vygotsky Thought and Language reasoning Teaching & Learning ZPD The metaphor of Scaffolding Applied to Deaf/Blind education Attached Study AidsFlash Card Deck - Early child development 2

United Nations Convention Rights of the child - Promotes children's well-being throughout the world. The idea that children are developing and that their development must be protected and promoted is central to articles of the Convention.  United Nations Convention Rights of the child - The rights of the child to be respected and to be consulted about matters that affect them - Includes 40 articles that covers a range of childrens rights

Childhood is an important social category which defines children’s activities and experiences: for example the child rights and activitiesChildhood is shaped by the circumstances in which they grow up, and by the beliefs and attitudes of those who influence them.

Children are influenced by the law, parents and teachers. Children negotiate their daily lives, their rights, responsibilities, activities and the choices available about what they do, although how far these choices are possible depends on their circumstances

status of childhood is seen in changes in law, as for example when school-leaving ages in England were raised to 14 in 1918, to 15 in 1936 and to 16 in 1973. Meanwhile voting ages in England were lowered from 21 to 18 in 1970.

Article 32 is about protecting children from ‘... any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education, or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social developmen27 affirms children’s right to provision of a standard of living ‘... adequate for the child’s physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development

Children were regarded to be different from adults, represented in paintings and pictures

created a huge demand for child labour, which led social reformers to question its impact on children’s well-being

Expectations about children. Childhood became more clearly differentiated from the adult world of work.

studies of children’s development  shaped by new theories about human evolution, illustrated by Darwin’s studies of his own son.

A natural processes of maturation where a genetically encoded development plan unfolds.

emphasize the influences of learning and experience

The belief, associated with the seventeenth to eighteenth century philosophers that all knowledge comes from experience.

An approach to human learning originally associated with Plato, which proposes that learning is based not so much on actual experience but on revealing to ourselves knowledge which we already have, and indeed are born with.

The merging of the two Kant proposed that we are born with certain mental structures that help us to interpret input from our senses in particular ways. He called these mental structures categories of understanding. By themselves, they cannot give us knowledge and it is only through interaction with the environment that these structures order and organize experience. Furthermore, there is an active role for individuals as organizers of experience: no longer are they seen either as passively receiving sensory stimuli (as in empiricism), or passively following some biological programme (as in rationalism or nativism). The major mechanism for development is the continuous, two-way interaction between the child and the environment. In this view, both nature and nurture play an important role in development.

The child’s own role in their development is recognized in constructivist theories, such as Piaget’s stage theory. Interactions between the child and their environment

Social constructivist theories ask about young children’s guided induction into particular settings, sets of relationships and ways of thinking. They see development as involving social processes of communication, teaching and learning, not just the individual child interacting with their environmen

The vast majority of child development researchers are located within economically rich, Western societies and their studies have mostly been about children growing up in these same societies. Recall that the study of children’s development was established during a period of major social reform affecting children in industrial societies, especially the growth of universal schooling

Piaget saw children as having to construct their understanding of the world for themselves, prompted a massive volume of research activity, which continues today

This approach sees child development arising from specific forms of learning, based on the idea of the child as a passive recipient of environmental influences that shape behaviour  The behaviourist approach considered how the environments that people live in influence their behaviour  

which emphasizes how external factors, such as reward and punishment, affect behaviour  

The social learning model thus recognized the more active part that a child can play in learning from their environment. It also stressed the significance of ‘role models’ in children’s development

Supported by research that showed how aggressive behaviour was often imitated by children who observed others engaging in it.      

In contrast to the behaviourist view, saw children as an independent agents in their own learning and more important than influences from their parents and teachers.  It described in detail a series of four successive stages through which all children were believed to progress  

Piaget believed that children think differently than adults and stated they go through 4 universal stages of cognitive development.  Development is therefore biologically based and changes as the child matures.  Cognition therefore develops in all children in the same sequence of stages.

This theory sees children as active participants in their own development, but in addition stresses the roles that other people and the culture the child grows up in play in fostering development.  

The learning of an association between a reflex behaviour and a previously unrelated environmental stimulu  This is a ‘reflex’ response; it is unlearned and ‘built-in’ to the nervous system, like knee-jerking if the knee is tapped Next the bell is regularly rung just prior to the food being presented. After a period of time the bell alone will elicit the salivation reflex in the absence of food. The bell has now become a conditioned stimulus and the salivation a conditioned response. This association can be weakened if the bell (conditioned stimulus) is regularly presented without the food (unconditioned stimulus). This process is called extinction  

the behaviourist viewpoint that not only can behaviour be explained by examining the environment, but that by changing the environment the person’s behaviour can be altered. Watson’s particular interest was the study of emotions. Together with Rayner he conducted an experiment into the conditioning of fear with an 11-month-old infant Albert BWhen initially presented with a white rat, Albert showed no fear. Subsequently, the rat was shown to him four times. Each time a metal bar was ‘clanged’ behind Albert’s head. On the fifth presentation the rat was shown but without the noisy ‘clang’. Although there was no noise, Albert still whimpered and moved away. He had learned to associate fear with the presence of rats through the process of classical conditioning. This response generalized to other previously neutral stimuli that were similar to the rat and which he previously had liked. He now also showed fear of furry toys, a fur coat and a Father Christmas mask. It should be noted that this study pre-dated ethical concerns about the potential of research to impact negatively on an individual’s well-being

Skinner conducted experiments  on animals, called the skinner box

Changing the way of behaviour by reinforcement to get the desired way of behaviour

The more the hungry rat presses the lever the more the rat is rewarded with food. Therefore the rat repeat the action time and time again.    

for eg.  a rat would receive an discomfort from the electric shock every time when placed in the Skinner box.  When the rat touched the lever the current is switched off.  Soon the rat learnt to go direct to the lever to stop the current

Punishment is defined as the opposite of reinforcement since it is designed to weaken or eliminate a response rather than increase it. Like reinforcement, punishment can work either by directly applying an unpleasant stimulus like a shock after a response or by removing a potentially rewarding stimulus, for instance, deducting someone’s pocket money to punish undesirable behaviour.

However, outside of the laboratory, it is virtually impossible to achieve such aims: adults cannot supervise the behaviour of children continually and be in a position to intervene immediately with appropriate punishment every time a child misbehaves. In the absence of these conditions, punishment as a means of behavioural control is, at best, short lived.

ABA is way of teaching in small chunk bites and at each step appropriate behaviours are reinforced.  At each step the child has support to ensure success.  Which is positively reinforced consequences that are reinforced for the child.  Gradually reinforcement and support is reduced over timeEarly interventions programmes for children with learning difficulties potentially produces positive changes in development can reduces the need for later intervention.  In many instances parents are trained in ABA programmes therefore becoming the trained primary therapist, this enabling the child to receive 1-2-1 tuition at home.  Evidence has shown that children who have autism that has received intervention in this way has helped them to be successful in mainstream school    

Attend to relevant aspects of the ‘model’ and their behaviour  Retain what they have seen, through appropriate encoding and rehearsal. Be physically able to reproduce the behaviour. Be motivated to perform the new skill, through the presence of reinforcement and punishment in the settingImportantly, he acknowledged the role of observing others experiencing reinforcement and punishment, but argued that its role was in influencing which behaviours children attend to in the first place, and also in affecting children’s motivation to reproduce a behaviour.      

Bobo doll research: Bandura conducted a series of experimental studies into children’s tendency to imitate. In these experiments pre-school children watched adult models act either non-aggressively or aggressively towards an inflatable doll called a Bobo doll. The children were subsequently observed to see to what extent they imitated what they had seen

Bandura bobo doll experiment prompted other researchers to look at imitation on violence. One researcher looked at the implications on the influence of TV violence Bandura also explored the idea of  televised aggression may have on children's behaviour and considered some of the variables that a child will imitate.  Bandura also explored the idea of  televised aggression may have on children's behaviour and considered some of the variables that a child will imitate. eg a child is more likely to copy if the model is the same age and gender of the child and if the model is attractive and has desirable characteristics.

A schema can be defined as a set of linked mental representations of the world, which we use both to understand and to respond to situations. The assumption is that we store these mental representations and apply them when needed.Piaget believed that newborn babies have some innate schemas - even before they have had much opportunity to experience the world.  These neonatal schemas are the cognitive structures underlying innate reflexes. These reflexes are genetically programmed into environment.For example babies have a sucking reflex, which is triggered by something touching the baby's lips.  A baby will suck a nipple, a comforter (dummy), or a person's finger.  Piaget therefore assumed that the baby has a 'sucking schema'

The understanding the object still exists when it can no longer be seen. This idea of ‘centring’ – the sense of the baby feeling herself to be the centre and the moving force of her world – runs through much of Piaget’s theory, Centration particularly the ideas of centration and egocentrism. The tendency of infants to The tendency to focus or ‘centre’ on a single aspect of a situation illustrates the complete focus exclusively dominance of their own perceptions. For example, when an object disappears on a single aspect from their sight and they behave as if the object has ceased to exist, they are of a situation. ‘centring’ on their own perception  According to Piaget the more the baby experiences repetitive actions and their affects, babies will then understand that actions will have consequences 

The desire to spontaneously apply existing schemas to new situations.

This happens when the existing schema (knowledge) does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation

Using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation

Equilibrium is occurs when a child's schemas can deal with most new information through assimilation

Vygotsky’s perspective was that human history is created through the construction and use of cultural tools. Cultural tools are ways of achieving things in the world, acquired in the course of development and passed on to subsequent generations     Cultural tools are ways of achieving things in the world, acquired in the course of development and passed on to subsequent generations         Cultural tools are ways of achieving things in the world, acquired in the course of development and passed on to subsequent generations  

Vygotsky (1986) however, proposed that language has two functions: inner speech, used for mental reasoning, and external speech, used for communication with other people.    

Vygotsky proposed that through contact with other, more able people children appropriate new ways of thinking and doing. Indeed Vygotsky saw learning as best supported when there is a degree of inequality in skills and understanding between two people. People of different abilities working together can create what Vygotsky termed a zone of proximal development (ZPD): ZPD supports the child’s cognitionZPD supports the child’s cognition

The support provided by a more able partner allows the less able to tackle a new task, which in turn encourages development into a new level of competence. The social interaction and situation that create the ZPD supports the child’s cognition The metaphor of a scaffold, which is gradually withdrawn as the learner becomes able to work with less support, stresses the significance of social support in learning and development

 Application by simple basic teaching eg  child feeding itself with support of an adult and stimulating aspects of the environment. 2nd - task is to develop language with hand gestures eg mimicking eating with other finger movements so that there is distinction bewteen food to eating outdoors.  This then moves the child to a symbolic form of communication.  Finally the child is taught to the associations of the words to the  equivalent spoken words  by touching the face and throat of their teacher while she speaks, and eventually trying to produce the same movements and sounds themselves    

The findings that Piaget originally produced have proved remarkably robust although the interpretations he placed upon them have been strongly challenged by subsequent researchers. Some studies have shown that infants of 5 months of age behave in ways that are consistent with an understanding that things continue to exist even when they are no longer visible. The findings of investigations with younger infants are ambiguous but suggest that children as young as 2 months have some appreciation of the properties of objects. While infants may have some idea of the permanence of objects, keeping track of objects which move from place to place is a more difficult problem since it makes demands on various parts of their still developing cognitive system. Children’s apparent lack of ‘object permanence’ can also be explained in terms of the development of short-term memory abilities.            

Piaget’s report that in early imitation, infants would only produce actions that were already in their repertoire In the case of tongue-poking, the baby is able to see the original behaviour but not their own attempt. It was Piaget’s proposition that this form of ‘unseen imitation’ is a more sophisticated development    

Research sheds light on imitation, experimental techniques and theories of the nature of childhood. Piaget took the view that knowledge of the world is constructed as a result of the interaction between infants and their environments. Other theorists are inclined to the view that infants are born with much more comprehension than Piaget allowed. Piaget’s original studies suggested that the development of imitation is a lengthy process which is not complete until 9–12 months. Subsequent investigations reported by Meltzoff and Moore presented counter-evidence that infants in the first days of life have the capacity to imitate behaviours demonstrated by an adult. Evidence also showed that infants of 6 weeks can store a ‘to-be-imitated’ action and perform it 24 hours later.  


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