Chapter 5: Short-term and Working Memory


The modal model of memory, sensory memory, short-term memory, working memory, working memory and the brian
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Chapter 5: Short-term and Working Memory
  1. Sensory Memory
    1. An initial stage that holds all incoming information for seconds or fractions of a second
      1. Retention, the effects of sensory stimulation
        1. Example: The way a sparkler is moved around on the air and the trail is actually in your memory not in the air
          1. Persistence of Vision: the continued perception of a visual stimulus even after it is no longer present
            1. Delayed Partial Report CogLab
              1. A group of 12 letters are flashed on the screen. After they are displayed a tone tells them what row to report
        2. Iconic
          1. Vision
          2. Echoic
            1. Hearing
          3. Short-term Memory
            1. Holds five to seven items for about 15-20 seconds depending on how complex
              1. Peterson and Peterson used method of recall to determine the duration of STM
                1. Digit Span: the number of digits a person can remember (five to nine)
                2. The system involved in storing small amounts of information for a brief period of time
                3. Long-term Memory
                  1. Hold large amount of information for years or even decades
                  2. Working Memory
                    1. A limited Capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning
                      1. Phonological Loop
                        1. Has two components
                          1. Phonological Store
                            1. Limited capacity and holds information for only a few seconds
                            2. Articulatory Rehearsal
                              1. Responsible for rehearsal that can keep items in the phonological store from decaying
                            3. Word Length Effect
                              1. When memory for lists of words is better for short words than long words and the second list is harder to remember because the words are longer
                              2. Irrelevant Speech
                                1. Where a random sequence of letters are given and you are to recall and half the trials have a german man reading
                                2. Articulatory Supression
                                  1. Reduces memory because speaking interferes with rehearsal and eliminates the word length effect
                                3. Visuospatial Sketch Pad
                                  1. Holds Visual and spatial information
                                    1. Brooks (1968)
                                      1. Visualize the letter "F", is the corner exterior or interior, either point to out or in or say out or in
                                        1. More difficult to point because imagining the letter and pointing both use visuospatial sketch pad
                                    2. In the Frontal Cortex
                                      1. Central Executive
                                        1. Control center of the working memory system
                                          1. Focus, divide, switch attention
                                            1. Controls suppression of irrelevant information
                                              1. Decreases perseveration
                                            2. Episodic Buffer
                                              1. Store information (extra capacity) and connected to LTM (interchange between WM and LTM)
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