Inclusive Education: Efficacy Research

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University Educational Psychology Mind Map on Inclusive Education: Efficacy Research, created by Maisie Rose Woodward on 11/01/2016.
Maisie Rose Woodward
Mind Map by Maisie Rose Woodward, updated more than 1 year ago
Maisie Rose Woodward
Created by Maisie Rose Woodward about 8 years ago
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Inclusive Education: Efficacy Research
  1. For Children with SEN
    1. Madden + Slavin (1983): some advantage to integration IF a suitable individualised/differentiated educational programme was offered
      1. Integration, not inclusion. Make the programme itself accessible?
      2. Baker et al (1994-5): effect sizes of 3 studies indicated small to moderate benefit of inclusion for educational and social outcomes.
        1. Difficulties in reaching a conclusion
          1. Lindsay (2003): efficacy of a human right?
            1. Different sets of rights conflicting (Farrell, 2000; Gallagher, 2001)
              1. Hegarty (1993): difficult to justify segregation if it is no better than inclusion
              2. Odom et al (2004): range of positive developmental and behavioural outcomes identified for children in inclusive settings, but SEN children not as socially integrated as their typically developing peers (3-5yo from 1990-2002)
                1. Lindsay (2007): marginally positive overall, but problems with very little efficacy research in the literature.
                  1. Poor social inclusion
                    1. Gresham + Miller (1997): compared with mainstream classmates, SEN children poorly accepted, more often rejected, lower levels of social skills and higher levels of problem behaviours. Mix of higher/lower self-concepts (due to setting? Higher in segregated classroom than in mainstream classroom?)
                      1. Kosher et al (2010): comapred with students without SEN, students with SEN appeared less well accepted and had more interactions with the teacher. But self-perception of both groups was not significantly different, with no effect of category of disability.
                        1. Nowicki + Sandieson (2002): abled children preferred to physically and intellectually disabled children. Inclusive classrooms had medium-sized effect on facilitating positive attitudes.
                      2. For the Classmates of Children with SEN (as a group, not individuals)
                        1. Dyson et al (2004): no evidence for a relationship between inclusivity and attainment at local authority or school level. Other factors (SES, gender...) were much more significant.
                          1. Kalambouka et al (2005): 23% positive, 53% neutral, 10% mixed, 15% negative. Outcomes more positive on academic than on social factors.
                            1. Staub and Peck (1994): no negative effects. Children did not 'pick up' undesirable behaviour, teacher time was not reduced.
                              1. Ruijs and Peetsma (2009): Neutral to positive effects. May be some differential effects for high and low achieving pupils without SEN. Congruent with other findings on social factors.
                                1. Manset and Semmel (1997): positive effect
                                2. Teacher Attitudes
                                  1. Robertson et al (2003): the more negative a teacher's relationship with a child with SEN, the less likely that child is to be socially accepted
                                    1. De Boer et al (2011): review of 26 international studies of primary school teachers' attitudes. Majority neutral or negative, none with clear positive results.
                                      1. Teachers reported lacking competance/confidence teaching children with SEN
                                        1. Less overall teaching experience OR more experience teaching children with SEN = more positive attitudes towards inclusion
                                          1. Most negative for learning/behavioural difficulties, more positive for physical/sensory
                                          2. Killoran et al (2013): positive change in attitudes as a result of a pre-service inclusive education course
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