Bullying: Theories


University Educational Psychology Mind Map on Bullying: Theories, created by Maisie Rose Woodward on 11/01/2016.
Maisie Rose Woodward
Mind Map by Maisie Rose Woodward, updated more than 1 year ago
Maisie Rose Woodward
Created by Maisie Rose Woodward about 8 years ago

Resource summary

Bullying: Theories
  1. Ecological Systems Theory
    1. Adapted for bullying from Bronfrenbrenner (1994) by Hong + Espelage (2012)
      1. Microsystem = pattern of activities/roles/interpersonal relationships experienced by a child in a particular setting where they are directly involved (e.g. home, classroom, playground)
        1. Mesosystem = relationship between 2 or more settings in which the child actively participates
          1. Exosystem = setting where child is not directly involved, but it affects/is affected by settings that do directly involve the child. E.g. neighbourhood environment, local authority's policy on bullying, exposure to violence in media...
            1. Macrosystem = influence of cultural/subcultural mores and belief-systems.
              1. Chronosystem = consistency/change of the child and their environment over time
                1. Tells us risk factors for different settings, with implications for the importance of assessing all systems and intervention at multiple levels
                  1. Payne + Gottfriedson (2004) found lower levels of bullying associated with school level factors
                    1. Teacher discussing bullying with pupils
                      1. Teachers recognising bullying behaviour and actually intervening in bullying incidents
                        1. Teachers showing interest in stopping bullying
                          1. Pupil cooperativeness
                            1. These factors also associated with more negative pupil attitudes towards bullying
                          2. Sociocognitive Deficit Theories
                            1. Social information processing model (Crick & Dodge, 1994)
                              1. 6 stages for how social cues are attended to, evaluated, reacted to, etc.
                                1. Skillful processing = social competance, biased processing = aggression and social problems (Crick & Dodge, 1996; Zelli et al, 1999)
                                2. Bullies have biased social information processing - attending preferentially to hostile cues, coding less neutral cues, selecting more instrumental goals over relational goals, evaluating aggressive responses more favourably...
                                  1. BUT not all bullies seem to be socially incompetent, some seem to be skilled manipulators
                                    1. Shakoor et al (2012): longitudinal twin study. Poor Theory of Mind age 5 predicted victim/bully-victim status, but proactive bullies had very strong ToM
                                      1. Proactive bullies socially competent but lacking in empathy + instrumental goals (Arsenio + Lemerise, 2001)
                                      2. Viding et al (2009): 11-13yo self-reports of callous unemotional (CU) traits and psychopathology, peer reports of direct/indirect bullying. Higher CU = increased direct bullying. CU + conduct problems = high risk for engaging in both types of bullying.
                                3. Family influence
                                  1. Social learning theory: aggression is learnt through modelling + reinforcement, early experience particularly influential.
                                    1. Olweus (1994) + Bowes et al (1994)
                                      1. High levels of physical aggression and emotional hostility between parents of bullies and their children
                                        1. These parents often do not set limits to their child's aggression, so it is often successful in achieving the child's goals
                                        2. Parenting style of victims is overprotective and overinvolved
                                        3. Schwartz et al (1997): longitudinal study. Parental behaviour = instrumental in the development of bullying behaviour in some children.
                                          1. Bully-victims: physical abuse, domestic violence, maternal hostility, harsh discipline
                                            1. Bullies: aggressive models, parental conflict
                                              1. Victims: not significantly different from homes of children not involved in bullying, BUT overprotective parenting not studied.
                                            2. Disorganised attachment (Bowlby): Strong associations with problems regulating emotions, behaviour problems in school, psychopathology in adolescence (Green + Goldwyn, 2002)
                                            3. Group process theories
                                              1. Social dominance theory (Nishina, 2004)
                                                1. Evolutionary advantage to bullying behaviour?
                                                  1. Establishing/rebelling against dominance hierarchies
                                                    1. Effects of how the adults in school assert their dominance over children, develop/maintain hierarchies, are important
                                                    2. Bullying an outgroup member increases feelings of ingroup membership
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