GCSE Geography - Fold Mountains - the Alps

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GCSE Geography Mind Map on GCSE Geography - Fold Mountains - the Alps, created by Beth Coiley on 27/05/2015.
Beth Coiley
Mind Map by Beth Coiley, updated more than 1 year ago
Beth Coiley
Created by Beth Coiley almost 9 years ago
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Resource summary

GCSE Geography - Fold Mountains - the Alps
  1. How are they formed?
    1. Rivers erode and transport sediment to the sea/ocean in a geosyncline
      1. Rivers meet the sea and energy falls
        1. Sediment is deposited
          1. Over time, layers of sediment build up and turn into rock
            1. This is due to the pressure from above
              1. The sediment is forced upwards as it is compressed
                1. Plates move together due to convection currents
                  1. The layers of sediment fold into a series of synclines and anticlines
                  2. Farming
                    1. Traditionally dairy cattle
                      1. Cable cars are used to transport milk from the co-operative dairies into the valley
                        1. Transhumance
                          1. In summer, animals are taken to the saeter to graze
                            1. In winter they return to the farm
                              1. This allows the grass to grow in summer
                            2. Some hay is farmed for use as feed
                              1. However, most farmers use artificial cattle feed
                                1. Valleys are sheltered from wind
                                  1. There is little flat land available
                                    1. The soil is reasonably fertile
                                      1. Cool climate, heavy snowfall and strong winds mean a short growing season
                                      2. Rivers and HEP
                                        1. Rivers
                                          1. Steep slopes
                                            1. Summer glacial melting
                                              1. High precipitation
                                                1. These all produce fast flowing rivers ideal for HEP production
                                              2. Tourism
                                                1. Resorts like Chamounix were opened in the 1950s
                                                  1. Winter sports like skiing and snowboarding are popular
                                                    1. Wildlife tourism also contributes to the economy hugely
                                                      1. There are both winter and summer resorts
                                                        1. The Alps are close to important areas like Germany and France
                                                        2. Trees and logging
                                                          1. Trees grow up to a height of 1800m
                                                            1. Soft wood can be used for paper and fuel
                                                            2. Housing and roads
                                                              1. There is little flat land available for building
                                                                1. It is difficult to establish communication links
                                                                  1. Hard to locate industries
                                                                    1. Some roads or settlements need avalanche protection
                                                                      1. New roads give access to upland pastures
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