Types of Rocks


Cambridge IGCSE Geography (Rocks) Mind Map on Types of Rocks, created by lloyd.richards98 on 30/03/2015.
Mind Map by lloyd.richards98, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by lloyd.richards98 almost 9 years ago

Resource summary

Types of Rocks
  1. Igneous
    1. Formation
      1. Formed by the cooling of molten magma caused by volcanic activity
        1. Magma cools underground > Intrusive
          1. Magma cools on ground surface > Extrusive
        2. Characteristics
          1. Crystalline
            1. Made up of interlocking crystals
            2. Tough, Hard, Resistant to Erosion
            3. Examples
              1. Granite
                1. Widely used for construction and monuments
                2. Basalt
              2. Metamorphic
                1. Formation
                  1. Formed within the Earth's crust
                    1. When another rock is changed by huge amounts of heat and pressure
                    2. Characteristics
                      1. Often exhibit layering called cleavage
                        1. Tough and resistant to erosion
                        2. Examples
                          1. Slate
                            1. SHALE (Sedimentary) > SLATE (Metamorphic)
                              1. Used for roofing
                              2. Marble
                                1. LIMESTONE (Sedimentary) > MARBLE (Metamorphic)
                                  1. Used for buildings and ornate statues
                              3. Sedimentary
                                1. Formation
                                  1. Sediment eroded from land by wind/rivers/ice is deposited in the sea
                                    1. LITHIFACTION
                                      1. Sediment is compacted on the sea bed until it forms layers of solid rocks
                                    2. Characteristics
                                      1. Usually found in layers called BEDS
                                        1. Normally weaker than other rocks
                                          1. Some i.e. Limestone are tough
                                          2. Vertical Joints, Horizontal Bedding Planes
                                          3. Examples
                                            1. Limestone
                                              1. Used in cement and glass
                                              2. Chalk
                                                1. Formed from COCCOLITHS
                                                  1. Used to make quicklime and mortar
                                                  2. Sandstone
                                                    1. Consists of Sand particles
                                                      1. Used in construction
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