What were the Cause and Consequences of The Cuban Missile Crisis October 1962

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A-Levels History Mind Map on What were the Cause and Consequences of The Cuban Missile Crisis October 1962, created by matthewnr73 on 25/05/2013.
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What were the Cause and Consequences of The Cuban Missile Crisis October 1962
  1. Causes
    1. The Problems over Berlin and Germany 1958-1961
      1. Khrushchev hoped that by placing missiles on Cuba, he would draw the USA's attention away from Berlin and open a window of opportunity for the Soviet union to act.
        1. The West (USA, GB etc.) failed to recognise the existence of the DDR or East Germany as an independent political entity.
        2. The Paris Summit, May 1960
          1. Khrushchev was fully comimtted to peaceful coexistence and at Paris 1960 he aimed at finding a solution to the problems over Berlin and Germany and the Prohibition of Nuclear weapons. The summit collapsed with news that an American U-2 spy plane was shot down on a mission over the Soviet union
            1. The collapse of the Paris Summit demonstrates a clear building up of tensions between the 2 superpowers which led to the CMC in 1962.
          2. The Berlin Wall, August 1961
            1. The Wall stopped the mass exodus of skilled workers from east to west Berlin, It is a symbol of the Cold War. It was a propaganda disaster for Khrushchev, and the Soviet administration
            2. The Bomb and the Nuclear arms race, 1949-1962
              1. The development of one nuclear technological advance by one country would push the other side to develop better technology:in essence the Arms race.
                1. By 1962, USA had a much more advanced nuclear capability that the USSR
                2. Nuclear weapons were used as a deterrent to prevent attack from the other side, becasu of the Fear of MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction)
                3. The USA and 'Massive Retaliation'
                  1. Massive retaliation was formulated in the National Security Council document NSC-162/2 , produced in 1953
                  2. The Sputnik, 1957
                    1. The USA feared that the USSR's missile capability was more advanced than that of the USA, The USA increased the military spending budget to improve their capability
                    2. US missiles in Turkey, May 1962
                      1. Part of a NATO missile deployment programme, to supplement NATO's defensive nuclear umbrella- Khrushchev put missiles on Cuba to remove the missiles in Turkey
                      2. The Bay of Pigs Invasion, April, 1961
                        1. 1500 Anti-Castro rebels supported by the US , invaded the Bay of Pigs in Cuba, aimed to remove Castro, failed and Humiliated Kennedy and the American administration
                        2. Operation Mongoose, November 1961
                          1. This was aimed at the destabilisation of the Castro regime via covert operations- This affirmed Khrushchevs suspicion that the USA would use force to remove a communist country.
                        3. Consequences
                          1. The 'Hot Line', 1963
                            1. A direct line of communication between the White House and the Kremlin, aimed at a quick solution and a way to avoid further crisis'
                            2. The Partial Test Ban Treaty, October 1963
                              1. This banned the testing of Nuclear weapons in this atmosphere, in outer space and underwater
                                1. An important step towards detente
                                2. Detente
                                  1. Literally means a relaxation of tensions. IN terms of international relations it came to describe the idea of easing relations between states.
                                3. Events of Cuban Missile Crisis
                                  1. 1959- Batista Regime overthrown and replaced by a new castro led regime
                                    1. 1960- Period of deteriorating Cuban-Us relation
                                      1. 1961:April- Us supported Bay of Pigs invasion by Anti-Castro rebels.| November:Kennedy authorised Operation Mongoose
                                        1. The Bay of Pigs invasion plan was inherited by JFK, The plan supported 1500 anti-Castro rebel exiles, to land on Cuba and remove Castro,
                                        2. 1962- March: USA launched Operation Quick Kick and military manoeuvres in Carribean
                                          1. 1962- May: Khrushchev decides to deploy nuclear missiles on Cuba
                                            1. 1962- August: Us intelligence observes 'activity' on Cuba
                                              1. 1962- September: SAM sites discovered on Cuba
                                          2. 1962- October: 'The 13 days War'
                                            1. 14 Oct.: American U-2 spy plane discovers Soviet missile sites on Cuba
                                              1. 16 Oct: ExComm has its first meeting
                                                1. 22 Oct: Kennedy announces the 'Quarantine' of Cuba
                                                  1. 25 Oct: Soviet Ships begin to withdraw en-route to Cuba
                                                    1. 27 Oct: US U-2 spy plane shot down over Cuba
                                                      1. 29 Oct:Khrushchev decides to withdraw missiles from Cuba
                                                        1. November: Withdrawal of Missiles is complete and the immediate crisis ends
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