Why did the Cold War Start 1945-1955


A-Levels History Mind Map on Why did the Cold War Start 1945-1955, created by matthewnr73 on 25/05/2013.
Mind Map by matthewnr73, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by matthewnr73 almost 11 years ago

Resource summary

Why did the Cold War Start 1945-1955
  1. Actions of USA
    1. Merged their Zone with Britain's, to form Bizonia on January 1st 1947
      1. Their Economic Domination of Europe, Through The Marshall Plan
        1. Kennan's 'Long Telegram' 22nd February 1946
          1. The 'Truman Doctrine' Speech to Congress,12th March 1947
            1. The Marshall Plan, 5th June 1947
              1. The Plan provided $13.5 billion dollars to 16 countries in Europe
                1. Inc GB, France, W Germany.
              2. Containment: Stop the Soviet Union spreading their influence through Europe via Economic and Political aid
              3. This was the Foundation of the Us policy towards the Soviet Union and ultimately determined the USA's role as a global superpower
              4. The Berlin Airlift June 1948 to May 1949
                1. The Korean War 1950-1953
                  1. Eisenhower' s 'New Look'
                    1. Massive Retaliation
                      1. An ultimate nuclear deterrent strategy and security guarantee for the USA
                        1. John Foster Dulles, EisenHowers Secratary of State 1953-1959
                        2. Rollback
                          1. A forceful American policy which would Rollback Russian occupation and dismatle the Iron-Curtain
                        3. The Establishment of NATO, April 1949
                          1. Improve American Influence in Europe, they had no say in the Western European Policies, and needed an Org. to change it.
                        4. Actions of USSR
                          1. Soviet Expansion in Eastern Europe, 1945 - 1949
                            1. The Warsaw Pact, 1955
                              1. Most of the Communist states in eastern Europe signed what was officially known as the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance
                                1. The signatories pledged to defend one another should they be threatened by an external aggressor, in this case the aggressor was NATO
                              2. Poland
                                1. The USSR used force to establish a pro-Moscow communist rule in POland
                                2. Romania,
                                  1. The occupation of the Soviet Liberation Army in Romania the King was forced to establish a communist government
                                  2. Czechoslovakia
                                    1. All the Non-communist members of the government resigned in Feb 1948, giving the communists complete control of the Government
                                    2. Bulgaria and Hungary
                                      1. Gradualism,manipulated elections and the forced removal of opponents characterised the process in Bulgaria
                                        1. Much like events in Bulgaria and Poland, rigged elections and the removal/execution of opponents allowed the Soviet's to put a pro-Moscow communist regime
                                        2. To improve Soviet National Security
                                        3. Establishment of Cominform, 1947
                                          1. The intended purpose of Cominform was to coordinate actions between Communist parties under Soviet direction
                                          2. The Berlin Blockade June 1948 to May 1949
                                          3. The Role of Britain, Germany and other European countries
                                            1. Britain
                                              1. Churchill's 'Iron Curtain' Speech, 6th March 1946
                                                1. From Stettin in the Baltic to Triest in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across Europe...
                                                2. Ernest Bevin, British Foreign Secretary
                                                  1. The Soviets Ultimate aim was to spread communism across the whole of Germany and their pressure to oust the western powers from Berlin was the first step in this process. A retreat from Berlin would hand a propaganda victory to the Soviet Union
                                                  2. 'Special Relationship' with America
                                                  3. Germany
                                                    1. West Germany allowed into NATO, 1955
                                                      1. The Deutschmark introduced into western zones to stabilise economy
                                                        1. Konrad wanted support from western European powers and a treaty with France
                                                      2. Ideology
                                                        1. Capitalism
                                                          1. The US government used anti-communist propaganda to create mass hysteria and the 'Red Fear'
                                                            1. The Government used this 'Red Fear' to enable them to adopt strong policies against the USSR
                                                          2. Communism
                                                            1. The USSR wanted to spread Communism throughout Europe
                                                            2. Vs
                                                            3. Nuclear Factor
                                                              1. Nuclear superiority= main cause for the Cold War as it forced competition between USA and USSR
                                                                1. Atomic Bomb
                                                                  1. USA-1945
                                                                    1. USSR-1949
                                                                  2. Intercontinental Bomber
                                                                    1. USA-1948
                                                                      1. USSR-1955
                                                                    2. Jet Bomber
                                                                      1. USA-1951
                                                                        1. USSR-1954
                                                                      2. Hydrogen Bomb
                                                                        1. USA-1952
                                                                          1. USSR-1953
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