By 1945, there were millions of homeless, sick and injured. USSR, the worst affected, lost 7.7 million civilians and 13.6 million
The USA and the USSR became a league of their own by 1945, leaving the UK, Japan, France and Germany behind
During the war, USSR and USA had joined together to defeat fascism - now it was defeated, there
was no more need to co-operate
The Allied Conferences
Yalta, Feb. 1945
FDR, Churchill and Stalin
Germany and Berlin would be divided into 4 zones: USA, USSR, UK and France. The countries of
E. Europe would hold free elections and the USSR would join the fight again Japan for Manchuria
and Sakhalin Island
Disagreed with Poland: Stalin wanted to move Poland's border west to river Oder and Neisse but
FDR and Churchill weren't happy. So, Stalin promised to not get involved with rebels in Greece.
Potsdam, Jul. 1945
Two months after war had ended - between VP Harry Truman,
Clement Atlee and Josef Stalin
In April, VP Truman replaced FDR following
his death - much more anti-Communist and
suspicious of Stalin. Atlee replaced Churchill
in a general election but wasn't as involved.
Victory in Europe and Soviet Union
Germany surrendered on 8 May 1945 - UK and USA began to
reduce forces in Europe unlike USSR - ignored Britsh and
American protests (said it had to make Poland Communist to
At the Potsdam Conference, Truman informed Stalin that he was testing a
new weapon against Japan. The success of it in July 1945 led to a new arms
race between USA and USSR
UK and USA denied Stalin's naval base in
the Med. as they saw no need - Stalin saw
it as mistrust. Stalin wanted more
reparations to cripple Germany but UK and
USA didn't want to - made Stalin
suspicious. Stalin set up a Communist gov.
in Lublin - Truman and Atlee were
Designed to sort out Germany and its leaders, who would get what after countries had been liberated, how
to end the war with Japan and maintain peace
Breakdown of USA-USSR
alliance; Iron Curtain Speech
The tension in Potsdam increased significantly - noticed by Churchill in March 1946 whose speech
claimed that an 'Iron Curtain' had descended between the democratic Western nations and the
Communist Eastern nations
Cold War formed as the common Nazi enemy disappeared, the USA was out of the
depression and USSR was emerging, USA was the strongest power in the world. By 1945,
Britain and France were crippled by the War whereas the USA and the USSR benefitted.
Soviet Expansion in Western Europe
Elections were held in E. Europe countries after Yalta, but were rigged. In Bulgaria, Albania, Poland, Romania and Hungary,
opponents were beaten, murdered or frightened into submission. By May 1948, all E. European states were Communist ruled.
Yugoslavia was Communist but ruled by Tito, not Stalin,
who refused. Stalin cut off any support from USSR.
Known as satellite states as they
heavily relied on support from USSR.
An alliance of Communist countries set by Stalin maybe as a response to
Marshall Aid. Aimed to spread Stalin's ideas of Communism - restricted
contact with the West. Only Tito refused to join - he split with Moscow.
Co-ordinated production and trade of
E. European countries - but favoured
USSR far more
The Truman Doctrine, 1947
Greece appeared to be the next country to
become Communist. The royalists had previously
won but they came under attack from Communist
forces in 1947
Truman was very worried - formed a foreign policy initiative
(Truman Doctrine). USA would not go back to being isolationist
and would try to contain Communism. Under it, the USA
provided military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey.
The Berlin Blockade and its
The Berlin Blockade and Airlift, 1948-9
Stalin cut off Berlin's physical links with the West, in response to them building
W. Germany to attack him and the merging of the FR, UK and USA zones.
The Allies airlifted
supplies into Berlin,
beginning in June
supply W. Germany
for 10 months and
in May 1949, Stalin
Effects of the Berlin Blockade
In May 1949, the Western zones became the Federal
Republic of Germany (West Germany). In October 1949, the
Soviet zone became the German Democratic Republic (GDR).
Military alliance of most of W.
Europe, USA and Canada. Main
purpose was to defend each of its
members from attack - if one was
hit, others would join in.
Warsaw Pact, 1955
In 1955, W. Germany
joined NATO. Soviets
made the Communist
version - Warsaw Pact.
The Soviets hadn't
forgotten the damage
that Germany had
done to the USSR in
Marshall Aid, 1947
Truman believed that poverty and hardship led to
Communism - wanted to make EU prosperous and
able to trade with the USA. George Marshall, US
Secretary of State, came up with the Marshall Plan.
Billions of $ into Europe
from 1947-51 providing
vital help. Only 16 EU
countries accepted it - all
W. Stalin refused it for
USSR and banned E.
European countries from it.
Czechoslovakia considered whether or not to accept it as it was
not part of Stalin's eastern bloc. But in 1948, it fell to Communism.