Cuban missile crisis


History (Cuban Missile) Flashcards on Cuban missile crisis, created by KatyWright on 03/06/2014.
Flashcards by KatyWright, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by KatyWright almost 10 years ago

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Introduction Both countries began developing their weapons so as to be able to ‘outgun’ their opponents. Cheaper than having a large army They were a deterrent. The idea was to have so many missiles that they could not all be destroyed. If one side attacked then it knew that the other could retaliate. This was known as MAD – MUTUAL ASSURED DESTRUCTION. For some the Arms Race was a test of the strengths of Capitalism v communism. ICBMS – Inter Continental Missiles. These were launched into space and then fell onto a target in another continent. Medium Range Missiles – These were missiles which could only be fired a short distance. America had a greater number of ICBMS; totalling 450. Whereas, USSR only had 76. Alternatively USSR had more Medium Range – 700, whereas USA only had 250.
Why Cuba? It is 80km off Florida in America’s East Coast Havana, the capital of Cuba, had been the play ground of the rich from America. They would come to the island at the weekend to gamble - illegal in all parts of America except for Las Vegas at this time. Over $200 million was actually invested in Cuba itself. America owned a number of businesses in Cuba and was the largest buyer of Cuban sugar
The Cuban Revolution 1953-1959 The Cuban Revolution (1953–1959) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro against the government of Cuban President Batista. Batista had served as the elected President from 1940 to 1944, became President for the second time in March 1952, after seizing power in a military take over and cancelling the 1952 elections. During his second term he became strongly anti-communist, gaining him political support and military aid from the United States. The revolution began in July 1953, and finally ousted Batista on 1 January 1959. The revolution involved guerrilla warfare in the Sierra Maestra mountains and advanced propaganda.
Bay of Pigs J F Kennedy - decided to give support to the anti-Castro Cubans who had gone to Florida. With CIA funding, a group of armed Cuban exiles tried to land in Cuba at the Bay of Pigs in 1961 with the sole intention of overthrowing the Castro government. It proved a fiasco - jeeps landed without fuel; no maps of the island being issued; Cuban exiles firing on Cuban exiles. But to Castro, this episode showed him where America stood in relations to Cuba. Kennedy did not apologise for America’s involvement in this event.
Why did USSR place missiles in Cuba? 1. Bargaining Counter Wanted President Kennedy to remove missiles in Turkey and have more freedom in East Germany. By placing missiles on Cuba, Khrushchev may get some of his aims met. 2. Brinkmanship USA had surrounded USSR with missiles; Khrushchev wanted USA to experience what it was like with weapons pointed at them. This would also strengthen Khrushchev’s position as leader of USSR. However, Khrushchev made USSR reliant upon missiles. 3. Missile Gap USA had missiles in Turkey which could launch a missile on USSR in minutes and they also had longer range missiles. By putting missiles in Cuba, it did not matter as much that they had less ICBMS and the medium range missiles were cheaper. 4. Defend Cuba Cuba was the only Communist country in the Western Hemisphere who volunteered to become Communist. USSR believed after the Bay of Pigs that USA planned to attack and remove Castro. 5. Draw them into a nuclear war USSR wanted to test how strong USA was; however, it is unlikely that USSR meant to cause a nuclear war, as USA had missiles aimed at them from Turkey; in addition to risky USA attacking them in Germany.
Why was USSR worried about missiles? • Communism could spread • Challenge to Kennedy • Nuclear attack could be imminent • Gave strength to Cuba
Events of Cuban Missile Crisis • Tues 16 October President Kennedy is informed of the missile build-up. • Sat 20 October Kennedy decides on a blockade of Cuba. • Mon 22 October Kennedy announces the blockade and calls for the Soviets to withdraw their missiles. • Tue 23 October Kennedy receives a letter from Khrushchev saying that Soviet ships will not observe the blockade. He does not admit the presence of nuclear missiles on Cuba. • Wed 24 October The blockade begins. The first missile-carrying ships, accompanied by a Soviet submarine, approach the 500-mile blockade zone. Then suddenly at 10.32 am the 20 Russian ships which were closest to the zone stop or turn around. • Thurs 25 October Despite this, intensive aerial photography reveals that work on the missile bases in Cuba is proceeding rapidly. • Fri 26 October The President receives a long personal letter from Khrushchev. He claims that the missiles on Cuba were purely defensive • Sat 27 October Khruschev sends a second letter – revising his proposals – saying that the condition of removing the missiles from Cuba is that America withdraw its missiles from Turkey. Kennedy cannot accept this condition. • An American U2 plan is shot down over Cuba. The pilot is killed. Kennedy decides to delay an attack on Cuba. He also decides to ignore the second Khruschev letter but accepts the terms suggested by Khruschev on 26 October. He says that if the Soviet Union does not withdraw, an attack will follow. • Sun 28 October Khruschev replies to Kennedy: ‘In order to eliminate as rapidly as possible the conflict which endangers the cause of peace… the Soviet Government has given a new order to dismantle the arms which you described as offensive and to crate and return them to the Soviet Union.’
USSR won the Cuban Missile Crisis 1. He forced America to say it would its missiles out of Turkey. 2. He pushed America into promising not invading Cuba 3. He successfully threatened America more than Russia had ever done. 4. He had tested America to see how far they would go. He knew Russia did not want war 5. He had made Russia look a powerful country . They were a superpower
USA won the Cuban Missile Crisis 1. He forced the Russians to take its missiles out of Cuba. 2. He embarrassed the Russians by forcing them to admit missiles were on Cuba. 3. He had tested the Russians to see how far they would go . He knew they did not want war. 4. He looked more powerful. He won respect for his efforts to avoid world war. 5. He did not gloat about Russia backing down 6. He did not give way to Russian threats.
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