|What are the 4 types of erosion?
|Corrasion Attrition Solution Hydraulic action
|What does Corrasion involve?
|Rocks being hurled at the cliff
|What does Attrition involve?
|Rocks banging together to create smaller, more rounded rocks and pebbles
|What does Solution ( corrosion ) involve?
|Salt dissolves the rock like acid
|What does Hydraulic Action involve?
|Water drives air into cracks in the rock, pressure builds up, exploding the crack and forcing bits of rock break off.
|What are the 3 main types of Weathering?
|Chemical Biological Physical
|Examples of Chemical Weathering
|-rain (mildly acidic) -oxidation (rock reacts with air) -hydration (rock swells + expands)
|Examples of Biological Weathering
|-bird poo (acidic) -roots (breaking the rock) -rabbits etc. (burrowing)
|Examples of Physical Weathering
|-freeze thaw (water gets in cracks and freezes) -haloclasty (salt crystals expand + crack rock)
|What is the difference between erosion and weathering?
|No waves involved in weathering In erosion the material is taken away
|What is the first stage of cliff erosion?
|cracks in the headland
|After cracks in the headland form, what is the next stage after continued erosion?
|What is formed when a sea cave joins the other side?
|What 2 things are left after an arch collapses?
|Stack and arch collapse material
|Once a stack has been eroded further what does it become?
|Where is an example of a bay?
|How are headlands and bays formed?
Image: 7677491_orig (image/jpg)
|What is SMP short for?
|Shoreline Management Plan
|What does the Shoreline Management Plan involve?
|hold the line advance the line managed realignment no intervention
|What are examples of Hard Engineering?
|Groynes Sea walls Rock Armour (rip rap) gabions offshore breakwater
|What are examples of Soft Engineering?
|beach replenishment managed retreat
|Where is an example of managed retreat?
|Abbots Hall - Essex
|Where is an example of Beach Replenishment?
|Pevensey Bay - East Sussex
|What is ICZM short for?
|Intergrated Costal Zone Management
|Who introduced ICZM?
|In what steps is ICZM carried out?
|1. identify ways in which a coastal area is being put under pressure 2. identify ways to reduce the pressures 3. complete recommendations 4. check that they are working
|What does ICZM protect against?
|Over development + environmental damage
|What are the 6 pressures on the Mediterranean coast?
|- Sea pollution -Urbanisation -Tourism -Desertification -Air pollution -Water Shortages
|Where is an example of a multi-use coastal area?
|What are the main uses of Southampton?
|Boating Cruise Terminals Fawley Chemical Plant Exon Mobil Oil Refinery Calshot Outdoor Activity Centre Fawly Oil Power station
|What is the name of the Palm Structure in Dubai? (make sure you can spell it correctly!)
|What are some important features on Palm Jumeirah?
|200 shops yacting / marinas 1000 + beachside villas and apartments large high rise luxury hotels
|Adding various islands to Dubai increased the coastline by... (km)
|Tourism statistics for 1990 in Dubai were at 1 million, how much did they increase by 2014?
|2014 = 6 million+
|What are the 2 main types of waves?
|Describe Constructive waves...
|long low waves stronger swash than backwash beach builds up limited erosion
|Describe Destructive waves...
|short steep waves stronger backwash, weaker swash beach and cliff erodes higher up rock can become eroded by salt spray
|What is UNEP short for?
|United Nations Environment Programme
|What was the name of the plan UNEP suggested to create a sustainable future for the Mediterranean?
|The Blue Plan
|What is the aim of the blue plan?
|Clean up the Mediterranean by 2020
|What main points are included in the recommendations for the Blue Plan?
|Make 10% of all coastal areas protected Reduce building development + green areas Develop inland tourism to ease coast Strict rules to reduce pollution treat waste water before it is pumped into the sea encourage renewable energy develop green areas encourage water conservation