Tectonic Hazards flashcards


GCSE Geography (Natural Hazards) Flashcards on Tectonic Hazards flashcards, created by katiehumphrey on 18/01/2014.
Flashcards by katiehumphrey, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by katiehumphrey almost 10 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
natural hazard naturally occurring event with potential to affect people/property: earthquakes, volcanos, tsunamis
natural disaster when a natural hazard does affect people/property
continental crust thicker and less dense
plates move because mantle underneath moves with convection currents where plates meet are called boundaries/plate margins
destructive plate boundary no crust is destroyed creates volcanoes
A constructive plate boundary, sometimes called a divergent plate margin, occurs when plates move apart. Volcanoes are formed as magma wells up to fill the gap, and eventually new crust is formed.
collision zone forms when two continental plates collide. Neither plate is forced under the other, and so both are forced up and form fold mountains.
A conservative plate boundary, sometimes called a transform plate margin, occurs where plates slide past each other in opposite directions, or in the same direction but at different speeds. Friction is eventually overcome and the plates slip past in a sudden movement. The shockwaves created produce an earthquake.
types of plate boundary
destructive margins cause earthquakes pressure builds up when one plate gets stuck as it's moving down past the other into the mantle
constructive margins cause earthquakes pressure builds along cracks within the plates as they move from each other
conservative margins cause earthquakes pressure builds up when plates that are grinding past each other get stuck
destructive margins cause volcanoes the oceanic plate moves down to the mantle, where it's melted and destroyed, magma forms and rises through cracks in the crust called vents and it erupts on the surface forming a volcano
constructive margins cause volcanoes magma rises up into the gap created by the plates moving apart forming a volcano
constructive margins cause volcanoes magma rises up into the gap created by the plates moving apart forming a volcano
focus the start of the earthquake
epicentre The point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake.
seismometer A machine that detects seismic waves caused by earthquakes
shockwave A rapid flow of energy that is sent through the earth after an earthquake
richter scale The measure by which the strength of earthquakes is measured 1-10 (where 2 is 10 times stronger than 1)
magnitude the strength of an earthquake
magma chamber large underground pool of magma
lava magma on the earth's surface
crater bowl-shaped basin in the top of the volcano
vent central tube which magma travels through
secondary cones eruptions from other vents may build up secondary cones on the flanks
ash, steam and gas material thrown out by the volcano
volcanic bombs larger material thrown out by the force of eruption
composite volcanoes are steep-sided and cone-shaped, made up of layers of ash and lava and containing sticky lava which doesn’t flow very far.
shield volcanoes have gently sloping sides and runny lava that covers a wide area. Gases escape very easily from shield volcanoes.
primary impacts of earthquakes buildings and bridges collapse people are injured/killed roads/railways/ports damaged electricity supplies cut off gas pipes broken telephone lines damaged water/sewage pipes broken
secondary impacts of earthquakes trigger landslides/tsunamis gas leaks people left homeless psychological problems shortage of clean water roads blocked businesses damaged - unemployment
impacts of earthquakes are more severe in LEDCs poor quality housing poor infrastructure not much money for protection less money/resources poor healthcare
people live in earthquake prone areas always lived there employed in the area confident of government support
reduce impacts of earthquakes prediction building techniques planning education aid
earthquake in MEDC: Italy 6th April 2009 6.3 on richter scale destructive margin damage $15 billion 290 deaths thousands buildings damaged thousands made homeless ambulances/fire engines/army sent to rescue survivors laws mean some buildings withstand earthquakes
earthquake in LEDC: Pakistan 8th October 2005 7.6 on richter scale destructive margin damage $5 billion 80,000 deaths entire villages destroyed 3 million homeless buildings not designed to withstand earthquakes no help emergency services
lots of people live close to volcanoes fertile soil - minerals tourist attractions source of geothermal energy
primary impacts of volcanoes building/roads destroyed - lava people/animals killed crops damaged water supplies contaminated CO2 causes suffocation
secondary impacts of volcanoes mudflows cause destruction fire started by lava flow psychological problems homeless shortage of food/clean water emergency vehicles blocked business damage - unemployment acid rain - SO2
reducing impacts of volcanoes prediction planning building techniques education aid
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