Ancient - Half Yearlies - NKE + Akhenaten


Notes for HSC half yearly
Brianna McCarthy
Flashcards by Brianna McCarthy, updated more than 1 year ago
Brianna McCarthy
Created by Brianna McCarthy about 8 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Role of the pharaoh - builder - warrior - religious leader - politician (foreign affairs) - artist/ administrator of propaganda - maintainer of ma'at
Herodotus quote "Egypt is the gift of the nile"
Resources provided by the nile - transport - drinking and bathing water -irrogation for crops - sugarcane for papyrus - fish and fowling - annual i nundation provides fertile soil (kmt)
Horus Represents the pharaoh on earth Son of Osiris
Osiris represents the previously passed pharaoh god of the afterlife
Festivals - Hem-sed (30th anniversary) - Feast of Opet for Amun-Re
Cantlon (role of the pharaoh) “a function of the king was to maintain that stability, that maat, through his vigor, his superhuman perception and his ability to create control through the force of his personality”
evidence of the reign of Amenhotep III • Stalae found at thebes, the first cataract, Knosso, Senna and the Bubana in the delta • Commemorative scarabs
Tiye Wife of Amenhotep III - - was represented almost constantly, equal sized, alongside the king (luxor) - also depicted as a sphynx in her stewards tomb - Advised the king about diplomatic affairs (Armana letters to Mitanni king) - was a co-regent to Akhenaten
Amenhotep III - hunter/ warrior image • Issued 2 commemorative scarabs promoting his success as a hunter – hunted 56 bulls in one day and 102 lions in his first 10 years as king - Successful battles in Nubia and Syria - depicted in Temple of Luxor
Cameron quote - Amenhotep • “Amenhotep III ruled Egypt for almost 40 years. During that time Egypt enjoyed greater power and prestige than it had before or since.” - Cameron
Buildings by Amenhotep III - Temple of Luxor - Mortuary temple + palace Malkata - Buildings and scuplures are described as "monumental" - The buildings of Amenhotep were known for their enormity, lavish design/ craftsmanship and rich materials
Nefertiti Queen of Akhetaten - Sculpture of her found in the workshop of the sculptor of Thutmose at Akhetaten - appears nearly twice as often as the king in theban artworks - is believed to have acted as a "queen regent" - also depicted pharaonlically, as a spynx and as a chariot driver
Akhenaten building - Completed temple of Karnak (amenhotep III) - 4 new Aten temples in east Karnak
Length of Akhenaten's rule 17
Early years of Akhenten Trained as a priest (temple of re) - evidence of his interest in the sun god includes a wine jar seal from Amenhotep 3’s palace in Malaka reading “The estate of the true kings son”
Co-regency - amenhotep 3 and Akhenaten • Aldred and Hayes say the evidence of his co-regency is in a letter from Akhenaten to King Tushratta – funeral of Amenhotep 3- disputed by Redford - Amenhotep was in poor health - training for his reign - reliefs of both kings at Karnak
Atenism - No afterlife - prayer was to be directed to the king - buildings and temples were designed to allow more sunlight - Destroying of relics of old gods
Akhenaten art - "Pre-dynastic" - Paintings of common activities and villagers - Elongated face, large hips and breasts, snake eyes - intimacy with family
Effect of Atenism/ reason for armana failure - Loss of jobs (priests and militants) and income for working class - Loss of religious hope - Vulnerability to surrounding nations - Damaging/ poor upkeep of old temples and buildings
Theories about art reforms Reeves +aldred - Nefertiti and Akhenaten were the same person Burridge - Suffered from disfiguring diseases
Traditional artisti depiction of pharaoh - Square, broad shoulders, elongated skills, hairless, gentle faces, always posing, women are smaller than men
Assmann - Akhenaten and neglect the temples of the gods and goddesses… were about to be forgotten, and their holy places in a condition of collapse
Advisors of Tuthankamun Aye and Horemheb
Portrayal of Tut Carefree and boylike
Ankhensena’amun Wife of Tut - evidence of her role is scarce - widowed - depicted as a small child in images of Akh and Nef
Tut as a warrior Chariots and bows found in burial tomb as well as paintings of seth training him in battle
Aye and Horemheb Former advisors - saught out to undo Akhenaten's changes Aye- 4 years Horemheb 28 years
Horemheb's edict - Found inscribed on a stela at Karnak - Threatened punishment for not paying taxes - Brought fear of wrongdoing to the land as a way of ending the corruption within the Amun priesthood - Aimed to bring justice back to Egypt
Ramesses I 2 years
Seti I 11-15 years - Battle of Kadesh + 4 other campaigns to regain empire -Had the goal of renewing Egypt by following the examples of Thutmose III and Amenhotep III
Ramesses II 66 years - Battle of Kadesh + Hittie Egypt Treaty
Kitchen on Ramesses (ambition "He had all the ambition of Youth"
Advisor of Amenhotep III Huy (Amenhotep, Son of Hapu) - Scribe and under secretary of the king - responsible for writing and documentation, and man power - luxurious burial tomb shows his importance
Rammeside advisor Prehotep
Role of the advisor - Administrate building projects - human relations - communicate with outer parts of the country - make sure projects were being undergone
Akhetaten used to be called... Tel-Armana
Evidence of Akhenaten's priesthood Wine jar seal at Amenhoteps Palace reading "Place of the true king's son" - Trained at temple of Re and Heliopolis
Akhenaten's length of co-regency 12 years • Aldred and Hayes say the evidence of his co-regency is in a letter from Akhenaten to King Tushratta – funeral of Amenhotep 3
Change of Akhenaten's name Year 6
Akhenaten's appearance theories Alfred - he was actually a woman (Nefertiti) +froelichs syndrome - Marfans syndrome (Redford and Burridge)
akhenaten advisors Pareneffer – royal cup bearer Huy (Amenhotep, Son of Hapu) Maya – general of the armies and lord of two lands Aye – master of Horses and chariots Maya – High priest at Heliopolis Ramose, scribe of recruits and overseer of treasury Mahu – Chief of police
Ma'at As the world was created in a state of continual tension between order and chaos, the primary role of the king was to maintain this state of ma'at, the harmony and protect Egypt from Chaos
Vizier Supervises the work of other officials, acts as the kings deputy and is responsible for all the main departments of gov - One for the north and one for the south - Evidence - text called the duties of the vizier
VizierS Amenhotep - Ramose
Original role of the queen - provide heirs to maintin royal blood line - took precedence over other wives - provide a female figure to complement the pharaohs relationship with the male gods
Restoration stela quote "The land was in confusion, the gods forsook the land"
Nefertari Wife of Ramesses II - depicted officiating religious ceremonies in shrines - exquisitely painted tomb at the valley of the queens - signifying her impact and importance - wrote to the Hittite queen
Achievements of Amenhotep III - Economic boom due to trade - Beginnings of Atenism -monumental buildings -
Order of pharoahs Amenhotep 3 Akhenaten Tutankhamin Aye Horemheb Ramesses Seti I Ramesses II
Michael Rice Queens/ women “queens and especially queens mothers, have exercised a power influence in the society”
Annual inundation The waters of the River Nile would rise and make the banks/ Nile Valley more fertile, ensuring the growth of crops
Nile Valley • The narrow cultivated strip of land on either side of the river, Egyptians called it “Kmt”
Neighbors of Egypt Libya, Palestine, Syria, Babylonia, Assyria Egypt was surrounded by natural borders of ocean and cataracts
The Nile was good for Argiculture Water source Transport Animal husbandry Fishing and fowling
Re Sun god
Amen Rose to power in the 18th dynasty
Religious sumbol in artworks Pillar - stability and Osiris' triumph Sphinx - the Pharaoh as a warrior Yellow circle - Aten
18th dynasty Warfare was less important, as the lands were peaceful and egypt was already feared - Amenhotep III - Akhenaten - Tutankhamun - Aye and Horemheb
Pharaoh as an administrator Responsible for economics and trade relationships Had to manage key officials and upkeep their roles
Pharaoh as warrior - Military leader of Egyptian army - Was expected to work for the expansion of the borders and conquest of other lands - Earned and maintained Egypt's powerful reputation
Pharaoh as a hunter - Depicted in this way to show enemies and locals that he is fearless - propaganda
Pharaoh as religious leader - Maintains ma'at/ balance with the gods - held festivals - maintained cult followings - built/ restored temples and religious buildings - Connection between people and the gods - Constructed religious policy
Pharaoh as a builder - Religious and political significance of buildings were the two primary reasons for building - Emphasizes the power and devotion of the king
Golden age Amenhotep III
Sekhmet Worship of this god was promoted by Amenhotep III, as they were identified with healing - Temples holding 17 statues of the god found in Luxor
Amenhotep as a foreign administrator - Communicated with the neighboring leaders - alliances with rulers of north east - Adding foreign princes to royal harem - exchanging gifts with fellow kings
Evidence of the influence of Tiye - Amenhotep was rarely depicted without her and in an equal size to him - Her name was found on official inscriptions and armana letters - Represented as a Sphinx in a noble's tomb
Akhenaten ascesion to throne - Throne was to originally go to older brother Thutmose but he died - May have been co-regent with Amenhotep - releifs of both at temple of Karnak
Reason for Armana revolution - Amenhotep displayed an interest in the Aten before his death - As the Egyptians no longer had wars to fight and a need to pray for assistance and thus he needed another way to make a name for himself
Memorae damnatia - Destroying evidence of the reign of an older pharaoh - Akhenaten destroyed old gods in year 10 - Tutankhamun destroyed evidence of Akhenaten
Bentley's view on Akhenaten Failure Traditional religion and capitol restored after death Concept of atenist afterlife was one of emptiness and undesirability
Gardiners view on Akhenaten Attempt to rid cults of secrecy was an innovation Move to the new capitol was the most important move of his career Atenism lacked ethical teaching
Kemps view on Akhenaten The warrior status was maintained with campaigns in Nubia (year 12) and military action in Levant Art was innovative and showed the king in a new light Lack of festivals harmed the populations adhesion to the new religion
Callenders view of Akhenaten Campaign in Nubia year 12 First sovereign to use Nubian Troops in Asia Army appears in major reliefs of the period Placed high value on diplomacy The loss of the empire was on the hands of Amenhotep III
Thomas' view of Akhenaten Raising of Aten to state god was acceptable but the elimination of others was not A political opportunist who wanted to hold absolute power by being synonymous with the one god
Tutankhamuns view of Akhenaten Speaks of his fathers time as a period of "sickness" and the widespread neglect of the gods resulted in their deserting of Egypt
Ay and Horemheb on Akhenaten Described the reign as, in Ay's restoration Stela, "evil", "estruction of right" and "corrupted"
Ramesside views of Akhenaten Was described as "the rebel" and "the criminal" and was left of the official list of Kings at Abydos
Name the natural features of Egypt -Natural border provided by Mediterranean and red sea - Cataracts created natural border between Egypt and Nubia
Significant sites of Egypt Thebes Valley of the Kings Malkata
Herodotus on Egypts geography Not only is the Egyptian climate peculiar and the Nile different in its behaviour from other rivers elsewhere
Natural resources in Egypt - Main crops - wheat and barley - Vegetables - leeks, onions, and beans Fruits - figs, dates and grapes Herbs provided medicines, perfumes and flavours Hares and antelopes were hunted Cliffs along the river provided limestone, granite and sandstone
Resources provided by neighbors Nubia - Gold, ivory, baboons and copper Palestine - Cedar and silver
Mitanni From Naharin Diplomatic marriages Writing to king Tushratta from Tiye
Syria North of Palestine Often changed allefiance from Mitanni to Egypt or later to the Hittites Crossroads to major trade routes - valuable
Hittites From Anatolia Peace treaty
2 functions of Akhetaten Religious - cult centre of Atenism Political - Administrative capital of Egypt
Reasons for the move to Akhetaten - aten was entitled to own centre - Disassociation from other gods - Difficult to worship aten at the amun centre - Concern about opposition from key officials and priesthood - Protecting self and family from civil disturbances
Location of Akhetaten Was situated 350km North of Thebes on the east bank of the Nile on a flat desert plane that was dry, windswept and barren - Virgin soil free from any previous gods
Time of Akhetaten's completion Construction was complete in year 8 and the city was fully functional by year 9
Symbolism of Akhenatens tomb placement Built in line with the rising point of the sun on the horizon, making himself into the Aten each morning He was showing that he was the one true god and his dedication to Atenism
Window of Appearance Where Akhenaten and his family would appear each morning to greet the people
Mallison on Akhetaten "Public buildings were precisely planned, based n the topographical features of the erea" "The positioning of the buildings caught the rising and setting sun which replicated the hieroglyph of the horizon"
Regular processions of Akhenaten Along the Royal Road, running from the North City to the Central city - there was opportunity in Akhenaten's travels along this road for the adulation of the image of the Aten
Kemp on the processions along the Royal Road Sumarises that these royal excursions were used to "fill the vacuum left by the lack of religious festivals and processions previously celebrated such as the Open and Valley Festivals associated with Amun" "arena or royal display"
Central city of Akhetaten Main public (religious and administrative) buildings were located here Kings House - administration and reception centre Records Office The Great Temple of the Aten Mansion of the Aten - mortuary temple Royal Road
Evidence found in the Kings House (Akhetaten) - Wall painting of daughters of King and Queen Neferneferure and Neferneferuaten - Limestone carving of the head of Akhenaten
Features of the Great Temple of the Aten (Akhetaten) Em Aten - Contained alter for worship Sanctuary - contained "Holy of Holies" (statue of Aten) with a high altar Slaughter yards for sacrifices
Unstead and Aldred on the Great Temple of the Aten "The Great Temple of the Aten was the centre of worship if Akhenaten's new god... The buildings within were laid out within a processional plan"
North City of Akhetaten North Riverside Palace - Main royal residence North Palace - Ceremonial palace Middle class estates and villas
South City of Akhetaten Maru Aten - private royal resort or Aten viewing area Middle class estates and villas
How many Boundary Stelae were there? 14 Boundary Stelae were carved into cliffs marking the borders of the new city Stood between 3 and 9 metres high and decorated with scenes of royal family worshipping Aten
Oaths inscribed on Boundary Stelae - None could alter the decision of building Akhetaten - He would never extend the city beyond the boundaries - The city became the capitol - Mnevis Bull would be burried here -A and his family were to be burried here
Mnevis Bull Sacred bull regarded as the physical manifestation of the sun god Re
South Eastern Boundary Stelae quote "I shall not violate this oath which I have made to Aten my father in all eternity"
Tiye religious role evidence Depicted as a goddess in Nubian temple made in her honour
Nefertiti religious role Actively assisted in the conversion to monotheism - images of her in worship found at Akhetaten
Akhensenamun religious role Depicted in a gold shrine interacting the the goddess hathor and ensuring the happiness of Tutankhamun in the afterlife
Nefertari religious role - Depicted officiating ceremonies with Ramessess II at the shrine of Abu Simbel - Depictions of Hathor alongside her in the temple of Ramessess II at Abu Simbel - Presided at the investiture of a high priest - Goddesses maat, Isis and Horus are depicted at her side in her tomb
Military role of Tiye Depicted as a sphinx trampling her enemies at the tomb of her steward
Diplomatic/ political role of Tiye Exchanged letters with foreign rulers regarding trades of gold - king Tushratta wrote to her regarding the relationship after amenhotep III's death
Diplomatic/ political role of Nefertiti "The beautiful woman who has come" is written throughout Thebes in her depictions, suggesting that she may have come from abroad. She may have been a diplomatic marriage
Akhensenamun diplomacy/ political role Hittite prince is shown to have been sent to marry her and become king of Egypt through letters stating "he will be my husband and king of Egypt" - the two later disappeared
Diplomacy/ political role of Akhensenamun Communication with Hittite queen after peace treaty "With you my sister, may all go well"
Traditional role of Tiye Commemorative marriage scarabs
Traditional role of Nefertiti Was depicted in embrace with her children throughout Akhetaten
Robins on Queens "The queen represented the female principle of the universe through which the male king could renew himself"
Catalysts of changing roles of queens While pharaohs were fighting the wars of liberations, queens took a more important role (17th dynasty) Inspiration would have stemmed from the important roles of - Tetisheri, Ahhotep II, - Ahmose-Nefertari and Hatshepsut
Important queens of Old Kingdom - Tetisheri (probable founder of 18th dynasty) - Ahhotep II (put down a rebellion) - Ahmose-Nefertari (first god’s wife of Amun, worshipped as goddess, in DEM) - Hatshepsut (Thutmosid pharaoh, assuming full titulary and iconography of a king)
Aldred on Akhetaten "It was here that the king founded a capital on virgin ground, which was built for the aten"
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