|CHANGE: Was there a big difference or a small difference between Normans and Anglo-Saxons?
|-Relatively small difference. -Many aspects of crime and punishment remained the same.
|CHANGE: What were the main two differences between the Anglo-Saxons and Normans?
|-The power of the king increased. -The Church became more centralized and religion became even more important.
|CRIME: What is an example of a new crime that the Normans made, in wake of rebellions?
|Killing a Norman.
|CRIME: What is the crime of 'killing a Norman' an example of?
|How rulers make laws to protect themselves and others in authority.
|LAW: Who were the Forest Laws made by?
|By William I.
|LAW: What did the Forest Laws state?
|-30% of England would be protected by Royal Forests controlled by the new Forest Laws. -This introduced new crimes and punishments for them.
|LAW: Were the new laws harsh and give an example as to why?
|-Yes, they were very harsh. -If deer were eating a person's crops, it was now a crime for people to kill them.
|LAW: Apart from woodlands, what else did the Forest Laws cover?
|Farms and villages, as well as many of the more remote places of England.
|LAW: What were the punishments like for breaking these new laws?
|LAW: What did William I love doing and what did the laws allow him to do?
|-Deer hunting. -The Laws allowed the King and his successors to hunt freely.
|LAW: Give 3 examples of ways in which the Forest Laws provided an important extension of royal authority.
|-A large network of forest officials policed the laws of the forest, adding to the king's control of the country. -Fines and special forest taxes added to the monarch's wealth and hence his strength. -The Forest Laws were designed to add to the king's ability to maintain law and order in lawless areas.
|RELIGION: What did the Normans allow the Church to have?
|More power over crime and punishment.
|RELIGION (COURTS): What did William I set up to give the Church more power?
|Church Courts to deal with religious or moral crimes.
|RELIGION: Give 3 examples of religious crimes.
|-Adultery. -Sex before marriage. -Not following all the rites and practices of the Church.
|RELIGION: What did William also use the courts to do?
|Control the behaviour of priests.
|RELIGION: What happened in 1215 to highlight the influence of the Church in law enforcement?
|The ending of trial by ordeal when the Church refused to administer oaths.
|CONTINUITY: What was the 'mund'?
|A Norman law idea that an area of land around every man's home in which peace and order to be able to exist.
|CONTINUITY: After 1066, as the king owned the whole country, what did this mean?
|-That his 'mund' covered everybody. -This meant that William was responsible for law and order throughout his kingdom.
|CONTINUITY: What was the idea of the 'mund' similar to in Anglo-Saxon times?
|The 'king's peace' that gradually grew up under the Anglo-Saxon kings.
|CONTINUITY: What was the extent of continuity between Anglo-Saxon and Norman times, in terms of the role of the king?
|-Law under the Normans was similar to that established by the Anglo-Saxons. -BUT William's authority was greater.
|CONTINUITY: What was the extent of continuity between Anglo-Saxon and Norman times, in terms of the local systems of law enforcement?
|-Reliance on shire courts and sheriffs continued, though Normans used the term 'county' instead of shire. -Local law enforcement role of the hundreds continued almost unchanged for many years. -Tithings, the hue and cry and trial by ordeal continued. -Normans had NO police force like the AS
|LAW: The Normans introduced trial by combat as a new method of trial by ordeal. What was this?
|God would show guilt through the result of combat between the accused and accuser.
|LAW: What does trial by combat indicate about Norman society?
|The importance of warfare.
|LAW: What would happen if the victim or accused was an invalid or a woman?
|They could be represented by an appointed 'champion'.
|LAW: How long did trial by combat last for?
|Well into the Middle Ages.
|COURTS: Which type of courts continued?
|For ordinary people, the law continued to be with their local manor court where the lord acted as judge, and the jury was made up of heads of the tithings.
|COURTS: Which new courts were set up?
|County courts which would deal with more serious crimes.
|COURTS: How could a town get a borough court?
|By getting a charter from the king which would give the town freedom from the local manorial court.
|CRIME: For the following crimes, what was the appropriate punishment? 1) Minor crimes (petty theft) 2) Major crimes 3) Serious crimes (murder, arson) or repeated offences 4) Most serious crimes (rebellion or heresy)
|1) Fines ; Stocks or pillory. 2) Beatings and floggings ; amputation of hands, arms etc. 3) Execution (most commonly hanging but occasionally beheading, burning, stoning or drowning). 4) Execution by beheading, burning or hanging.
|PUNISHMENT: Which type of punishment increased?
|-Death penalty. -Mutilations.
|PUNISHMENT: Which type of punishment decreases?
|The idea of paying compensation to victims
|PUNISHMENT: Where were most punishments carried out and why?
|In public so that they could act as a deterrent.
|PUNISHMENT: For minor crimes, was there a big difference in punishments from AS times?
|-Almost all of them remained the same. -Introduction of pillory so that the offender could be exposed to public ridicule and anger.
|CHURCH LAW: What did the church believe all laws should try to do?
|Save the soul of a criminal and reform them.
|CHURCH PROTECTION: What were the two ways in which people could be protected by the Church from punishments?
|-Benefit of clergy. -Right of sanctuary.
|CHURCH PROTECTION: What was the 'Benefit of Clergy'?
|-Priests could only be tried in Church courts, which had no power to use the death penalty. -ONLY assumed that Priests would be educated enough to read. -Many wrongdoers escaped by learning by heart the passage from the Bible (neck verse) used for this test.
|CHURCH PROTECTION: What was the 'Right of Sanctuary'?
|A criminal who could get to the sanctuary of a church could not be arrested. If he confessed his crime, he would be allowed to leave the country.