Flashcards on MATTERS OF LIFE AND DEATH - UNIT 1, SECTION 2 - RELIGIOUS STUDIES GCSE EDEXCEL, created by Khadijah Mohammed on 07/04/2015.
Khadijah Mohammed
Flashcards by Khadijah Mohammed, updated more than 1 year ago
Khadijah Mohammed
Created by Khadijah Mohammed over 8 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
What do most Christians believe about life after death? They believe that after death the body stays in the grave and the soul goes to God for judgement. Those that have been good will go to Heaven and the souls of the unrepentant sinners will go to Hell.
What do Catholics believe in life after death? Catholics also believe in purgatory and that they body will be resurrected.
Give the definition of the 'immortality of the soul' The idea that the soul lives on after death of the body.
What evidence do Protestants give about life after death? Jesus told a thief on the cross that he would be in heaven that day. Jesus said his father's house had many rooms. The church teaches that all Christians, dead and alive, belong to the Church. Some Christians think the paranormal (e.g. ghosts and mediums) is evidence of an afterlife.
What evidence do Evangelical Christians give about life after death? Jesus' body was raised from the dead. The creed (St Paul): 'I believe in the resurrection of the body and everlasting life.'
What evidence do Roman Catholics give about life after death? Resurrection of Jesus. Teaching of the New Testament e.g. the Book of Revelation. Teaching of the Catechism of the Catholic Church. The creed which says Jesus 'is seated at the right hand of the father and will come again to judge the living and the dead.'
What are the differences in protestant beliefs? Some Protestants believe there is no hell.
What are the differences in Roman Catholic beliefs? They believe in Purgatory, where the souls of sinners are sent to be cleansed. The souls of those who do not believe in God or who have committed unforgiveable sins will go to hell. When the world ends, Jesus returns to earth to raise the dead (resurrection) , God will make a new heaven and the souls still in purgatory will go to heaven.
What effect does the belief in the afterlife have on a Christians life? They would want to try and live a good life and treat others as they would like to be treated. The afterlife shows them that they should repent and to forgive. They know they can cope with suffering when they know heaven awaits them. They will try to live within the guidelines of the Bible and the Church because they will be judged by God.
How might Christians respond in their lives? Confession- ask for forgiveness for their sins Prayer - praying more regularly and communicate more frequently with God Doing good work- because they know God is watching them , they will try to live life how we wants them to by helping others.
Explain how a Christian may put their Christian teachings into action They will follow God's commandments and the example of Jesus through 'treating others as they would like to be treated.'
Explain vocation They may choose to dedicate their lives to God through jobs like a nurse or doctor and helping others or by becoming a priest or minister, nun or monk.
What do Muslims believe in? Akhirah.
Explain their belief about akhirah (life after death) After death, the angel of death will take a person's soul to barzakh (the stage between when a person dies and when they face judgement. Allah will then judge each individual on the way they lived their life. On the Day of Judgement the body will be resurrected. Two angels will open the book which contains the record of what a person has done in their lifetime.
What does it mean if their name is recorded on the right hand side of the book? The individual will be sent to al'Jannah (paradise)
What does it mean if their name is on the left hand side of the book? The individual will be sent to Jahannam (hell)
Why do Muslims believe in the afterlife? The Qu'ran states that we came from Allah and we must return to Allah. Surahs 11 and 56 teach that those who live a good life will go to al'Jannah and that Allah is powerful but also merciful. The teaching and practice of the Prophet (the Sunnah)
Explain judgement in the afterlife in the Islamic belief The Qu'ran and Shari'ah law teach that Muslims will be judged by Allah and their actions will determine their afterlife. Islam teaches that the good will be rewarded and the evil punished. The Qu'ran teaches that God's judgement is final. Only the judgement of Allah puts the wrongs of the life right.
What effect does this have on a Muslim? All Muslims will follow teachings of the Qu'ran and Shari'ah law. They will follow the example of Prophet Mohammed and try to be a good Muslim. They will try to act the way Allah wishes, caring for others and not causing harm. They know that Allah sees everything and they will be judged on what they do so they will try to please him.
What are the 3 non-religious reasons for belief in an afterlife? Near-experiences, paranormal activity and reincarnation.
Describe a near-death experience Near death experiences are reported by patients pronounced dead for a short time. They describe leaving their bodies and seeing themselves outside of their body. Sometimes people have reported seeing dead relatives or a bright light.
Describe what paranormal activity is Paranormal activity refers to unexplained events that are thought to have a spiritual cause. Ghosts are thought to be spirits of dead people who have not travelled to 'the next place'. Evidence can be a physical presence that cannot be seen or a feeling of something being in the room with you.
What do mediums claim to do? Mediums claim to be able to contact the dead.
Explain what reincarnation is Reincarnation is the belief that a person's soul is reborn into another body or form after death. This is an idea believed by Sikhs and Hindus but also many non-religious people because of memories from the past or deja vu.
What are the other reasons why people believe in an afterlife? The idea of death is difficult to believe in. Belief in an afterlife seems to make life fairer. Sometimes people feel their loved ones who have died are still with them. It makes sense that those who have led a good life should be rewarded and those who have not should be punished.
Explain why many non-religious people do not believe in any kind of afterlife Evidence- There is not evidence of an afterlife- no one has ever returned to prove it exists. Mediums and others who try to prove there is an afterlife are tricking people. Science - Science explains everything in our world and we should not believe in things that are unscientific.
Give another reasons why non-religious do not believe in any kind of afterlife. 'Religion is outdated' - Beliefs in heaven and hell are outdated and were ideas used to control people and their behaviour in the past. Religion offers no good evidence of an afterlife. The Bible, which contains this information is not relevant today. Some argue God is not real and it does not make sense to believe in life after death without reference to God.
Explain when non-religious people say that humans are mortal. When a person dies their body decays so how can there be anything else? Life after death is impossible - we live and then we die.
Give the definition of 'abortion' A removal of a foetus from the womb before it can survive.
What are the UK abortion laws? 1967 Abortion Act Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act of 1990. Abortion must be agreed by two doctors.
Why is an abortion allowed to take place up to 24 weeks? Abortion is allowed to up to 24 weeks if: There is a physical or mental risk to the woman's health. Any existing children would suffer or be at risk. The child would be severely disabled.
Why is an abortion allowed to take place after 24 weeks? Because there is a risk to the mother's life, the baby will be severely deformed, there would be risk of serious physical or mental injury to the woman.
What are the arguments for abortion? Women should have the right to choose - it's their body. In cases of rape, abortion should be allowed. It is kinder to allow abortion if the child will be severely disabled. Babies have the right to be loved and cared for and the woman cannot always provide this.
What are the arguments against abortion? Life begins at conception. An embryo has the potential to be a human and should have the right to life. Even disabled children have the right to life. Adoption is an alternative.
What is 'sanctity of life'? The belief that life is holy and belongs to God.
Give examples in the Bible where it supports the sanctity of life argument 'So God created man in his own image'. 'Your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit...' 'You shall not commit murder'.
What are the Christian arguments against abortion? Abortion is viewed as murder. Life is a sacred gift from God. God has a plan for every human. All life has value even if a child may be born disabled. Life begins at conception.
What are the Christian arguments for abortion? Jesus taught about compassion towards others. We cannot be sure life begins at conception. In cases of rape or incest, it is the kindest action. Medical technology allows us to identify problems with the foetus. Abortion is the best choice if the mother's life is at risk.
Do Muslims share similar ideas to Christians about the 'sanctity of life?' Yes, life for Muslims is sacred and a gift from God. Abortion takes away a life so is wrong.
What is ensoulment? Life begins when the soul has entered the foetus at 120 days. Some Muslims claim this happens earlier, after 40 days.
When do Muslims think that abortion is allowed to take place? Muslims believe abortion is wrong but many believe it might be allowed in some cases (e.g. if the mother's life is in danger). This is because : the foetus would not exist without the mother. The mother's life is established and she has responsibilities to carry out.
Give examples of the different Muslim views on abortion. Some Muslims allow abortion in the first 16 weeks, others in the first 7 weeks. Before ensoulment (120 days) a foetus known to be suffering from a serious defect or blood disorder can be aborted. Some argue abortion is allowed in cases of rape or incest. After 120 days, abortion is only permitted if the mother's life is in danger.
Give more examples of Muslim views on abortion. Some Muslim women believe they should be able to choose what happens to their bodies. An unplanned pregnancy is not a reason for abortion. Abortion is not allowed if the pregnancy is a result of adultery. Abortion is never allowed in situations where parents are concerned that they cannot care for child.
What is euthanasia? The painless killing of someone dying from a painful disease.
What is voluntary euthanasia? A person's life is ended deliberately and painlessly at their request.
What is assisted suicide? Providing a seriously ill person with the means to commit suicide.
What is non-voluntary euthanasia? Ending someone's life painlessly when they are unable to ask, but you have good reason for thinking they would want you to do so.
Explain euthanasia in the UK All forms of euthanasia are against the law. Switching off a life support machine for a patient who is 'brain dead' is not considered euthanasia and is allowed. In 1993, the House of Lords rejected a proposal to legalise euthanasia.
What are the two ways in which euthanasia is carried out? Active euthanasia. Passive euthanasia.
What is active euthanasia? Carried out by a doctor performing a deliberate action such as a lethal injection.
What is passive euthanasia? When medical treatment or life support is withdrawn or when a severely ill person is not given treatment to help them survive.
What are the arguments for euthanasia? Allows patient to die a gentle, pain free death. The patient dies with dignity. Saves medical costs. Medical staff can focus on patients with more chance of survival. Relieves family burden.
What are the arguments against euthanasia? Sanctity of life - life is sacred and special. If euthanasia were legalised, it would lead to other things being made legal which would lessen the value of life. Some people may be pressurised into choosing euthanasia.
Give other arguments against euthanasia. Hospices provide alternative palliative care for patients so euthanasia is not needed. Doctors can be wrong about diagnosis. Helping someone to commit suicide means living with what you have done for the rest of your life.
Why do some Christians believe that euthanasia is wrong? Only God has the right to take away life. Euthanasia could be used for evil purposes. No person should value themselves as so worthless that it would be better to die. No one should be able to make a judgement about the value of another person's life.
Give other arguments why Christians believe that euthanasia is wrong? Doctors or relatives may make the decision without involving the patient. Life should be valued, even when someone is in pain. It goes against the sanctity of life argument. It is seen as murder because it takes away the life of a human.
What is a hospice and what are they seen as by Christians? Hospice provide good quality pain relief, support the dying and the families, and help the dying prepare for death. Hospices are seen as an alternative to euthanasia.
What do Muslims believe that euthanasia is wrong? Human life is sacred because it is given by Allah. Allah chooses how long each person lives. It is part of a Muslim's duty to care for the sick and elderly. Suffering is a test of faith and part of life. No one knows Allah's plans for his creation and humans should not interfere.
Give two other arguments why Muslims disagree with euthanasia. Euthanasia is seen as suicide which is not permitted. All life is valuable even if a person is suffering.
Explain in detail why euthanasia is wrong in a Muslims perspective Euthanasia is seen as wrong like murder and suicide. Muslims believe they should trust their lives to Allah and life is a test which determines their afterlife. If they try to end their life, they may end up in hell rather than paradise.
Give a quote to support why euthanasia is wrong. 'No one dies unless God permits'.
For Muslims, is euthanasia ever right? Some Muslims allow terminal patients to choose not to continue with medical treatment if it is causing hardship or family distress. Some Muslims would agree with turning off life-support machine if nothing further can be done.
Why is important that issues such as abortion are discussed in the media? Because: They affect everyone. People hold strong opinions and it is important to be aware of different views. They are controversial with many different views. There are developments and the law may change which people need to know about.
Give arguments why the media should criticise religious views on these issues. A variety of views are held. Religious views may be wrong or seen as out of date. It is important to debate views because they are constantly changing.
Give arguments why the media should not criticise religious views on these issues. Religious views should be respected as they've been around for a long time. They're based on traditional teachings such as those in the Bible. The media should present a range of ideas but should not criticise them.
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