Developmental Psychology

Description

Degree Psychology Quiz on Developmental Psychology, created by Ben Armstrong on 26/04/2017.
Ben Armstrong
Quiz by Ben Armstrong, updated more than 1 year ago
Ben Armstrong
Created by Ben Armstrong almost 7 years ago
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Resource summary

Question 1

Question
A strong advantage of the longitudinal design is
Answer
  • that informed consent is not necessary.
  • its ability to discern amongst cohorts.
  • that it follows development of individuals.
  • that it protects from selective attrition.

Question 2

Question
The long-term stability of children’s temperament is most properly studied
Answer
  • experimentally.
  • cross-sectionally.
  • longitudinally
  • speculatively

Question 3

Question
Which of these is NOT among the five measurements that make up the APGAR test for neonates?
Answer
  • muscle tone
  • heart rate
  • reflex irritability
  • attention span

Question 4

Question
In recent decades, the age of viability has advanced earlier in the period of the fetus because of
Answer
  • the increasing rate of single parenthood
  • the perfusion of toxic chemicals in food and water
  • better maternal nutrition
  • advances in medical technology

Question 5

Question
Reasoning by verbal analogy: MATERNITY BLUES are to POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION as __________ is to __________.
Answer
  • PRIMATE / HUMAN
  • POSITIVE / NEGATIVE
  • FATHER / MOTHER
  • MILD / INTENSE

Question 6

Question
When adults interpret emotions displayed by babies in their first months of life, they
Answer
  • are unreliable and inaccurate
  • do better with negative emotions than with positive
  • do better with positive emotions than with negative
  • are highly accurate regardless of the type of emotion

Question 7

Question
"Social referencing" refers to the child's ability to
Answer
  • categorise people or animals as good or bad
  • use the reactions of others to interpret an ambiguous stimulus or situation
  • hide one's own true inner feelings
  • understand that others' feelings differ from your own

Question 8

Question
Which of these is NOT among the several methods for studying infants’ sensation / perception?
Answer
  • habituation / dishabituation
  • high-amplitude sucking
  • deferred imitation
  • evoked potentials

Question 9

Question
Sandra’s mum has no time to look into a mirror. Which flaws is 6-month-old Sandra LEAST likely to notice?
Answer
  • very smudged eye shadow
  • a big bruise on mum’s nose
  • a piece of pasta hanging off mum’s chin
  • a crow’s nest in mum’s hair

Question 10

Question
As little Benny masters object permanence, which behaviour represents the most advanced understanding?
Answer
  • passively waiting for an object to reappear
  • anticipating invisible displacements
  • making an A-not-B error
  • looking at another toy as the first one disappears from view

Question 11

Question
Cernunnos's dad is upset and cries. Cernunnos gives his teddy to dad to hold, and tells dad he will feel better if he hugs that teddy. According to Piaget, Cernunnos is showing
Answer
  • egocentrism
  • decentered emotionality
  • sympathetic empathetic concern
  • animism

Question 12

Question
Reasoning by verbal analogy, Piaget’s view is to Vygotsky’s view as ________ is __________ to .
Answer
  • egocentrism / other’s viewpoint
  • adolescence / childhood
  • flexibility / rigidity
  • solitary / social

Question 13

Question
For Vygotsky, private speech is
Answer
  • meaningless babbling
  • entirely silent and cannot be heard by others
  • passive reporting on thoughts after they have happened
  • self-talk that helps children to plan their thoughts

Question 14

Question
A basic definition of imitation is
Answer
  • doing an action after seeing it done
  • repeating an action after getting reinforcement
  • varying a response to achieve reinforcement
  • repeating an action

Question 15

Question
Generalised imitation, a higher-order skill investigated by researchers in Bangor and other behaviour analysts, denotes an
Answer
  • ability to copy actions
  • ability to copy a variety of actions
  • ability to copy a variety of novel actions
  • ability to copy a variety of novel actions without external reinforcement

Question 16

Question
A toddler is able to name many objects and events. He hears a familiar word /cat/. This makes him
Answer
  • look to find a cat
  • try to pet the cat
  • neither look or try to pet but may echo the word ‘cat’
  • both look and and try to pet – and he may echo the word ‘cat’

Question 17

Question
The set of emotions that are closely tied to cognitive development, particularly self-recognition and an understanding of social norms is
Answer
  • interest, distress, disgust, and contentment
  • anger, surprise, fear, and sadness
  • embarrassment, shame, guilt, and pride
  • joy, happiness, frustration, and boredom

Question 18

Question
Bellona is 8 months old. She turns away and starts crying when a stranger approaches her pram in the supermarket. This reaction would
Answer
  • be unusual in a child at that age
  • be evidence that Belinda was insecurely attached
  • be considered a typical response to a stranger for a child of that age (but not necessarily a universal response)
  • simply indicate that Belinda is tired or hungry

Question 19

Question
Emotional attachments between parent and child
Answer
  • are the result of cultural effects of parenting in the Western countries
  • slowly rise from social interactions in the first months
  • emerge suddenly at birth, to the strongest level
  • result from both persons' shared genetic relationship

Question 20

Question
Mary Ainsworth's (1978) "Strange Situation”
Answer
  • identifies the child's level of visual imagination
  • provides training for the transition into foster care
  • measures the child's interest in novel unfamiliar items
  • assesses the child's attachment style

Question 21

Question
The two common fears of infancy, separation anxiety and stranger anxiety, reflect the baby's preference for
Answer
  • easy temperament
  • familiarity
  • social referencing
  • learned helplessness

Question 22

Question
Training to improve the sensitivity of parents to their child’s needs
Answer
  • is doomed to fail because caregiving is genetically predetermined
  • works and promotes secure attachment
  • is directed mainly to upper income parents
  • yields temporary gains that are lost within weeks

Question 23

Question
Sam, age five, turns away from the TV that shows a report of an earthquake, where people are hurt. Sam is likely to be feeling
Answer
  • self-oriented distress
  • sympathetic empathetic arousal
  • a hostile attribution bias
  • learned helplessness

Question 24

Question
Finnish school-based KiVa programme does NOT contain
Answer
  • an online game training emotion recognition
  • classroom activities that teach children to be helpful bystanders
  • psychological counseling to make bullied children less vulnerable
  • parental educational materials

Question 25

Question
Bangor-made Food Dudes programmes are effective interventions that increase consumption of fruit and veg. They are usually delivered by
Answer
  • parents
  • researchers
  • children
  • teachers

Question 26

Question
A researcher reports that boys show more physical aggression than girls in free play. She is able to demonstrate consistency of results across time, situations, and observers. Therefore, her findings are:
Answer
  • Reliable
  • Proven
  • Valid
  • None of the above

Question 27

Question
A researcher measures play behaviour of a few children over a long period of time, in daily structured play sessions. Possible problems?
Answer
  • Children will get bored with this and underperform
  • Results will be insufficient to draw valid conclusions
  • Results may not generalise to other children
  • All of the answers

Question 28

Question
A researcher reported that 3-year-old children have longer attention span than 2-year-old children, as they remembered more pictures shown in a test. She used a cross-sectional design, and tested 25 children in each group.
Answer
  • Data are not valid or reliable
  • Data are not generalisible to other 2- and 3-year-olds
  • Data cannot tell us about the development of individual children
  • All of the answers

Question 29

Question
You show preschool children Manyard the Cat. Then, in front of them, you place a dog mask on the cat’s face. You ask the children, does he bark or meow? They will say
Answer
  • meow
  • bark
  • can do either as he chooses
  • neither

Question 30

Question
Genetic epistemology, Piaget's academic specialty, could be defined as the study of the:
Answer
  • child's social relations with others such as peers
  • inheritance of developmental disability
  • inheritance of behavioral habits
  • development of knowledge

Question 31

Question
In Piaget's theory, balance between the child's thoughts and the environment is called:
Answer
  • tertiary circular reaction
  • phylogenetic scaffolding
  • early constructivism
  • cognitive equilibrium

Question 32

Question
Which of these is NOT among Piaget's four cognitive developmental stages?
Answer
  • Formal operations stage
  • Preoperational stage
  • Proximal zone stage
  • Sensorimotor stage

Question 33

Question
Object permanence refers to the understanding that:
Answer
  • durable toys are preferred over those that break soon
  • existence continues even when something is out of sight
  • inanimate objects have the ability to "hide" actively
  • lost objects will always be located later

Question 34

Question
Three-year-old Bethan gets scared when her mum dresses up in a dinosaur costume on Halloween. This child shows:
Answer
  • a phylogenetic development
  • assimilation and accommodation
  • lack of object (person) permanence
  • misunderstanding of the appearance/reality distinction

Question 35

Question
Four-year-old Britney mistakes her neighbour's new pet rabbit for a kitten. Britney's error illustrates the Piagetian process of:
Answer
  • animism
  • assimilation
  • accommodation
  • tertiary circular reaction

Question 36

Question
Suppose we asked children to make drawings of all the life forms that might occur on another planet. According to Piaget, the most novel, creative ideas of life forms are likely to come from children at the:
Answer
  • sensorimotor stage of cognitive development.
  • preoperational stage of cognitive development.
  • concrete-operational stage of development.
  • formal-operational stage of development.

Question 37

Question
Neith is 4 ½ years old. She often talks out loud even when other people are not listening. This habit (according to Piaget) is:
Answer
  • unusual for boys but common for girls
  • unusual for girls but common for boys
  • fairly common in all children her age but of no significance for her cognitive development
  • fairly common in all children her age and helpful to her cognitive development.

Question 38

Question
A toddler is most likely to remember:
Answer
  • A very unusual event, such as seeing a flying balloon in the park or an elephant in the zoo
  • A very typical event, such as having breakfast with mum
  • Only the events that are highly emotionally significant.
  • Nothing at all – we do not remember until we are about 3-4 years of age

Question 39

Question
If he were alive today, Vygotsky would identify the calculator you have on your phone as a(n):
Answer
  • device for inner experimentation
  • tool of intellectual adaptation
  • zone of proximal development
  • electronic scaffold

Question 40

Question
Which statement is LEAST applicable to Vygotsky's theory?
Answer
  • Cooperative interactions with skilled tutors are helpful
  • Variations in cultural influences are acknowledged
  • Developmental universals are sought and identified
  • Scaffolding assists the child with difficult tasks

Question 41

Question
In the mirror self-recognition test, the parent covertly places a red spot on 1-year-old Gareth’s face. The child is then presented with a mirror. What is he most likely to do?
Answer
  • Deliberately ignore the red spot
  • Stare at the red spot
  • Touch their nose / wipe the red spot
  • Interact with the mirror (kissing or touching it)

Question 42

Question
When do you think most children start to learn their native language?
Answer
  • When they are about 12 month old
  • When they are about 6 months old
  • Soon after birth
  • Before they are born

Question 43

Question
Which type of parenting produces the happiest, best-adjusted children?
Answer
  • Authoritative (high D/C and high A/R)
  • Authoritarian (high D/C and low A/R)
  • Permissive (Low D/C and high A/R)
  • Uninvolved (Low D/C and Low A/R)

Question 44

Question
15-years old Mary is more likely than most of her peers to show poor self-control, poor academic performance, and to use illegal drugs. Her parents may have used:
Answer
  • Authoritative parenting style
  • Permissive parenting style
  • Uninvolved parenting style
  • Either permissive or uninvolved

Question 45

Question
Aphrodite is 3 years old. When her brother Jack was born, she started throwing tantrums, wetting herself, and trying to hurt Jack. This behaviour is:
Answer
  • The outcome of Aphrodite’s parents’ permissive style.
  • The outcome of Aphrodite’s difficult temperament.
  • Aphrodite has both permissive parents and a difficult temperament
  • Normal

Question 46

Question
Girls are more likely than boys to show which kind of aggression?
Answer
  • Hostile
  • Instrumental
  • Relational
  • Bullying

Question 47

Question
Dave hits Chuck while their mum is not looking and as Chuck gets distracted, Dave grabs his toy. This is an instance of which kind of aggression?
Answer
  • Hostile
  • Instrumental
  • Relational
  • Bullying

Question 48

Question
Young infants prefer __________________ .
Answer
  • good deeds and actors
  • aggression
  • bullying
  • Negative emotions

Question 49

Question
Which of the following is NOT an elementary mental function?
Answer
  • Sensation
  • Belief in religion
  • memory
  • attention

Question 50

Question
What is scaffolding according to Vygotsky?
Answer
  • The prevalent model of tutoring in western societies and schools
  • The informal tuition of cultural-relevant practices, common to non-industrialised societies
  • When a mature social partner responds contingently to the child's behaviour
  • None of the answers given

Question 51

Question
Which one of the following is not a critique for Piaget's pre-operational stage?
Answer
  • Children are not always egocentric
  • Animalism also depends on context - novel objects that move are deemed animate not others
  • Conservation tasks are solved after training
  • children struggle with appearance/reality distinction

Question 52

Question
For parents, especially the mother, is there a sensitive period for emotional bonding in first 6-12 hours after birth?
Answer
  • Yes – this is crucial for the full acceptance of a new baby.
  • No, there is no such thing as sensitive period.
  • It may be helpful but it is not necessary.
  • It may be helpful not to see the baby immediately, until mother is properly rested and hormones return to normal.

Question 53

Question
Childhood attachments – processes and timeline of formation of close emotional relationships – are mainly the result of…
Answer
  • Biological predisposition and maturation
  • Early operant learning in social situations
  • Cognitive development
  • There is no set answer, but the majority of developmental psychologists believe it is a combination of them all.

Question 54

Question
Which of the following is NOT one of the five kinds of linguistic knowledge?
Answer
  • Phonology
  • Morphology
  • Syntax
  • Cosmology
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