The following are key inflammatory proteins involved in the initiation of atherosclerosis.
2) Chemokines (and Chemokine receptors);
What are CAMs?
Cell Adhesion Molecules
Chemokine Adhesion Molecules
Cell Adherance Molecules
Chemokine Adherance Molecules
Selectins are a family of 3 C-type lectins expressed exclusively by bone marrow-derived cells and endothelial cells. They include which of the following types?
L (Leukocyte) – selectin
E (Endothelial) – selectin
P (Platelet + Endothelial) – selectin
E (Epithelial) – selectin
P (Platelet + Epithelial) – selectin
M (Mesenchymal) – selectin
M (Myokine) – selectin
Which of the following are key SELECTIN ligands?
Integrins are membrane-bound proteins that are key inflammatory proteins. They’re heterodimers with α and β subunits. They include αLβ2, VLA-1, α4β1, LFA-1. Three integrin conformations have been described (bent form with closed headpiece; extended form with closed headpiece; extended form with open headpiece). Of these, the [blank_start]__________[blank_end] is the only one with HIGH affinity for ligand.
They can be activated by either chemokine engagement or selectin engagement. One results in rolling SLOWING, the other in it STOPPING. Which stops it? [blank_start]__________[blank_end].
Bent with closed headpiece
Extended with closed headpiece
Extended with open headpiece
CAMs include Intercellular (ICAM) and Vascular (VCAM). (and others)
[blank_start]__________[blank_end] is predominantly expressed on endothelial cells, but is also present on SMCs. Binds to VLA1 (Very Late Antigen-1) and α4β1 integrins.
[blank_start]__________[blank_end] is expressed on endothelial cells but also on leukocytes including neutrophils and monocytes.
Both are produced by inflammation but [blank_start]__________[blank_end] is more constitutively expressed
Three forms of cell death are described. Which is which?
[blank_start]__________[blank_end] = “dead body”;
[blank_start]__________[blank_end] = “eating of self”;
[blank_start]__________[blank_end] = “falling off”.
TRAIL = Tumour necrosis-factor Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand.
It’s a member of the [blank_start]__________[blank_end] ligand family.
Causes apoptosis of cancer/tumour cells; in clinical trials for cancer therapy. Emergence of non-apoptotic functions in normal cell.
Trail-/- (complete knockout) mice develop PVD and have [blank_start]__________[blank_end] vascularity in reponse to ischaemia.