Renal System A&P


Revision flash cards for undergraduate nursing degree first year exam
Kirsty Jayne Buckley
Flashcards by Kirsty Jayne Buckley, updated more than 1 year ago
Kirsty Jayne Buckley
Created by Kirsty Jayne Buckley almost 8 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
List the parts of the renal system Kidneys Ureters Bladder Urethra
Explain what the kidneys do Filter 200l of blood a day allows toxins and metabolic waste to leave the body Regulates volume and concentration of blood maintains homeostasis produces renin to regulate BP and erythropoietin to stimulate production of blood cells
A) Renal Cortex B) Renal Medulla C) Renal Capsule D) Minor Calyx E) Major Calyx F) Renal Column G) Renal Pyramid H) Ureter I) Renal Pelvis J) Renal Papilla
From top left - counter clockwise Glomerulus Proximal Convoluted Tubule Loop of Henle Collecting duct Capillary network Bowman's Capsule
Name and give the direction of blood flow of both arterioles in the glomerulus Afferent arteriole is wider, and so brings blood into the glomerulus The efferent arteriole is narrower and takes the blood cells out of the glomerulus. Efferent = Exit
Name the cells around the arterioles and describe their purpose Juxtaglomerular cells - the JGC contract, restricting the flow of blood if the blood pressure becomes raised. This is to prevent damage to the membrane between the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule.
What do the Juxtaglomerular cells release, and why? The Juxtaglomerular cells release Renin if they register a drop in blood pressure and this increases blood pressure by instructing the kidneys to retain more water.
What does the Macula Densa do and where is it? Situated between the afferent and efferent arterioles. It is sensitive to the level of sodium chloride in the blood, affecting reabsorption.
What does the glomerulus do? Filters blood through the membrane, into the Bowman's capsule
What does the Proximal Convoluted Tubule do? recovers up to 65% of water Vitamins recovered regulates electrolytes reabsorbs glucose and small amino acids Hydrogen secreted into the PCT from drugs and alcohol.
What does the Loop of Henle do? Descending: reabsorbs 15% of water Ascending: Regulates electrolytes
What does the Distal Convoluted Tubule do? Antidiuretic hormone released Aldosterone released 19% of water reclaimed Hydrogen enters by secretion More secretion than absorption
What does the collecting duct do? Removes water, waste products and electrolytes. Drains into the minor calyx
Name the 3 purposes of the kidneys. Filtration Selective reabsorption Secretion
Explain Filtration Takes place in the glomerulus. Nearly everything except blood cells enter the Bowmans capsule from here.
Explain selective reabsorption Any substance such as potassium that is needed by the body is reabsorbed into the blood by osmosis or diffusion
Explain Secretion Anything not removed by glomerular filtration such as hydrogen ions from drugs are secreted into the tubules from the network of surrounding capillaries.
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