US History Unit Exam


Study notes for the US history test on the Early Republic from 1789-1865
Erica Maul
Note by Erica Maul, updated more than 1 year ago
Erica Maul
Created by Erica Maul about 8 years ago

Resource summary

Page 1

The Hartford Convention by 1814, New England was sick of the war of 1812- the economy was ruined! Leaders met to discuss secession, but they decided to assert their state sovriegnty instead.

Democratic-RepublicanStarted by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, the Democratic-Republican party was an anti-federalist group. They believed that State Governments should hold power rather than the Federal Government.

FederalistThe first United States political party, which supported a strong national government and a friendly relationship with Great Britain. Their power practically vanished after the year 1800.

Andrew JacksonLiterally the most insane person ever who was elected to lead the Tennessee militia, then elected president in 1828. He wanted to get rid of the US bank and threatened to kill John C. Calhoun if he didn't lower taxes.

John BrownAbolitionist who led the unsuccessful raid on Harpers Ferry, VA, earlier involved in bleeding Kansas.

RepublicanFounded in 1856 from the Whig party and the Know Nothing party, their slogan was "Free labor, free land, free men". Republicans were seriously opposed to democrats and found its base in the North and Midwest.

Cotton Boom After the invention of the cotton gin, the economy started booming- cotton produced at a higher rate than ever.

Eli Whitney Invented the cotton gin.

13th/14th/15th AmendmentsThese amendments officially abolished slavery in the United States!!!

TecumsehThe native American leader of the Shawnee who fought to keep his people safe from American whitewashing and land stealing.

The Mexican-American WarThe US invaded Mexico and captured now California, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona. They paid $15 million and secured the border.

The Dred Scott DecisionDred Scott was a slave inherited by a man, Sanford who was against slavery. So, they set up Dred suing Sanford for his freedom. However, the Supreme Court denied it from him. This is considered the one unconstitutional decision they have ever made.

Abraham LincolnThe first ever Republican president, Lincoln was a front man for ending slavery, and the civil war began while he was in office. He also proposed the 13th-15th amendments which ended slavery for good.

The Kansas-Nebraska ActIn 1854, the Territories of Kansas and Nebraska were established, in which popular sovereignty would decide whether or not there would be slavery, resulting in Bleeding Kansas where land-hungry slave owners brutally attacked anti-slavery white men in order for them to vote for Kansas to have slavery.

Railroad At the time of the 1860 election, a big subject was a railroad across the Us to boost trade and the economy.

William Lloyd GarrisonA radical MA Yankee abolitionist who founded the leading anti-slavery journal.

Emancipation ProclamationAbraham Lincoln's executive order in 1863 which made all slaves free.

Northern Democrats A political party that was anti-slavery and believed all citizens had the right to protection.

Election of 1860A major US election between 4 parties: northern Dem, southern Dem, Union and Republican

Cotton GinInvented by Eli Whitney in 1794, the cotton gin changed the cotton industry and the view of slavery forever.

Thomas JeffersonKnown as one of the worst and best presidents, he purchased the Louisiana Territory, supported westward expansion and wrote Notes on the State of Virginia.

Constitutional Union Party Composed mainly in the Northeast, this political party was pro-constitution and anti-slavery. However, they wanted to avoid secession and stay strong, banded together.

SteamboatSteamboats were used for Missouri/Mississippi river trade, civil war fighting, and for reaching the west coast.

3/5ths ClauseA compromise on population count, where a slave was 3/5 a person.

Nat TurnerAn African-American Abolitionist who led a rebellion which killed over 60 white people. A radical and extremist to many. Had prophecies.

Bleeding KansasThe extremely violent fight in Kansas and Missouri over the Kansas-Nebraska act.

Missouri CompromiseA statute which prohibited slavery in the Louisiana territory, but not in Missouri.

Frederick DouglasA slave from Maryland who became a prominent abolitionist and lecturer.

Trail of TearsThe forced relocations of Native Americans following the Indian Removal Act in 1830. Prominent tribes were Cherokee, Chickasaw and Choctaw. Thousands died along the way.

Compromise of 1850A compromise on whether or not western territories would have slavery.

Raid on Harper's FerryThe unsuccessful attempt of John Brown to seize a US arsenal as an act of abolition.

War of 1812A second war between the US and the UK which the Us won.

Democratic PartyA political party that favored states' rights and a weak federal government. Some were pro- slavery, but some were anti-slavery.

Manifest DestinyThe idea that Americans were in fact destined to populate the west.

Southern DemocratsSupported the notion of slavery and westward expansion

Essay Questions 1. At what point did the Civil War become inevitable? That is, at what point was the war going to happen? Why? After Abraham Lincoln's Election in 1860, tensions among the parties of the United States were high and the abolitionist movement had begun. The Union had begun to feel threatened by southerners who wanted slavery and pro-slavery territories and states. They had to protect their identity and values, just as the Confederacy felt about slavery. The civil war was a long time coming, but once Lincoln, and anti-slavery president was in office, the southerners were angry and ready to fight.2. What were the Causes of the Civil War? Define them, how do they explain the Civil War and the motivation of the soldiers who fought in it? The main cause of the Civil War was slavery, as the federal government was pushing out laws, compromises, and acts in regards to its controversy. Also, southern Democrats felt that their states' rights were being threatened, states rights being the rights to property, basically slaves. Slavery was really the cause of this War.3. The election of 1860 defined the politics of the Civil War. Explain why this is and the consequences for the war. When Lincoln was elected, his party's views were so clearly opposing those of the southern democrats, who took up lots of space, and in fact surrounded Washington DC. Their unhappiness was so strong at this moment that they couldn't let their president take away their rights and freedom as a people.

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