Gender relations among the natives were not like that of the European, as the native women had more privileges such as owning land, and having important roles in religious ceremonies. Most Native American societies were Matrilineal.
Christian liberty was one of the distinct ideas of 'freedom' throughout the European population. It was believed that the more spiritual one was, the more freedom this gained. This ideal had no connection to the later belief of religious toleration.
"Coverture" was a widespread legal doctrine among Europe that states when a woman married that she surrendered her legal identity, which became "covered" by that of her husband. She lost rights such as owning property, signing contracts in her own name, writing a separate will, etc.
Chapter One : A New World
The Columbus Exchange is defined as the transatlantic flow of goods and people. It is the introduction of things from the "Old World" to the "New World", however it was NOT trade. Products introduced to Old World included corn, tobacco and cotton, while products introduced to the New World included wheat, sugar cane, and rice.
Spain's reasons for going to the New World included the search for wealth, national glory, and the desire to spread Catholicism. The English wanted more land.
Bartolome de Las Casas was a Spanish priest who wrote about the harsh treatment of Native Americans.
The Black Legend refers to the image of Spain as a uniquely brutal and exploitative colonizer. This was due to Casas' writings, which would be translated into other languages. This would provide a justification for other European powers to challenge Spain's predominance in the New World.
The nature of slavery in Africa was not based on a racial hierarchy, as it was usually a permanent punishment for prisoners and war criminals.
Pueblo Revolt of 1680 was the first overthrow of the Spanish by the Pueblo. Pope was the leader of this uprising, and this was the only wholesale expulsion of settlers in the history of North America.Pg. 37
The Metis were people mixed of Native American and French ancestry. This shows how generally good the relations between the French and the Native Americans were.
The Mestizos were persons of mixed Spanish and Native American origin.
In 1542, Spain put The New Laws in effect, which states that Native Americans could no longer be enslaved. This was proven to not be welcome by some.Pg. 33
Chapter Two: The Beginnings of English America
The Enclosure movement occurred when landlords evicted small farmers and fenced in their land previously open to all, due to new modern farming practices such as raising sheep. Thousands of people were uprooted from the land, and thus they migrated into the cities. Poverty grew immensely. (See: Indentured Servants)Pg. 56-57
Utopia was a novel published by Thomas More, describing the popular image of America (The New World) as a place where settlers could escape from the economic inequalities of Europe. Pg. 57
Indentured servants were settlers who voluntarily surrendered their freedom for a specified time (usually five to seven years) in exchange for passage to America.Pg. 58-59
Chapter Three: Creating Anglo America
Jamestown was the first established colony in Native America by the English.
The Headright system was enacted by the Virginia Company, in which fifty acres of land was awarded to any colonist who paid for his own or another's passage. Thus, anyone who bought in a sizable number of servants would immediately acquire a large estate.