Schizophrenia Research and Evidence

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relevant research and evidence relating to the topic of Schizophrenia for AQA Psychology B PSYB3 Includes research relating to: Biological explanations, Cognitive explanations, Sociocultural explanations, Treatments
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Schizophrenia Research and Evidence
  1. BIOLOGICAL
    1. GENETICS
      1. Gottesman et al (1991)- suggested that schizophrenia is inherited through genetic inheritance
        1. Twin studies- concordance rates of 46% for MZ twins and 14% for DZ twins.
          1. Cardno (2002) showed a concordance rate of 26.5% for MZ twins and 0% for DZ twins.
            1. Joseph et al (1991) showed concordance rates of 40% for MZ twins and 7.4% for DZ twins
            2. Family studies- the closer the genetic link the higher the chances of developing schizophrenia
            3. Adoption studies- Tiennari (2000) out of a sample of 164 adoptees who's mother was diagnosed with schizophrenia, 6.7% also recieved the same diagnosis compared to 2% of the 197 control group
              1. Heston (1966) found a concordance rate of 16% within children of schizophrenic mothers.
            4. NEUROANATOMICAL
              1. Szesko et al - found asymetry in normal brains, this is missing within people with schizophrenia.
                1. Andreasen et al (1990) found significantly large ventricles within the brains of schizophrenic men.
                  1. Liberman et at (2001) found the same results
                    1. Weyandt (2006) suggested a relation to negative syptoms
                  2. Jernigan et al (1991) found significant cell loss within the limbic system- Hippocampus and amygdala
                    1. Nasrallah at el (1986) the gender difference in the thickening of the corpus callosum is reversed in schizophrenic patients
                    2. NEUROCHEMICAL
                      1. Seeman et al (1993) found a 6X higher density in D4 receptors in the brains of schizophrenics
                        1. Pearlson et al (1993) found a significant increase in D2 receptors in the brains of schizophrenic patients
                      2. COGNITIVE
                        1. HALLUCINATIONS
                          1. Fowler (2007) found that there is a high incidence of child abuse or trauma in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia
                            1. Slade and Bentall (1988) five factor model suggests that hallucinations decrease anxiety
                              1. Close and Garety (1998) suggested the opposite
                            2. DELUSIONS
                              1. Bentall (1991) suggested that paranoid and persecutory hallucinations are a defence against depression and low self esteem
                                1. Zimbardo (1981) stated that delusions occur to make sense of a situation and may happen to people without schizophrenia
                              2. SOCIOCULTURAL
                                1. LABELLING THEORY
                                  1. Scheff (1966) proposed the idea that schizophrenia is a learned social role acquired through labelling
                                    1. Szasz (1962) - once a person is labelled as schizophrenic it influences their behaviour and become a self- fulfilling prophecy
                                      1. Rosenhan (1973) once labelled as schizophrenic, normal behaviours are seen to be as a result of the disorder.
                                      2. FAMILY DYSFUNCTION
                                        1. Brown et al (1958) - patients discharged into the care of family were at a higher risk of relapse than those that live alone due to the increased face to face contact between the patient and family
                                          1. 50% chance of relapse in high EE families compared to 21% in low EE families
                                          2. Butzlaff and Hooley (1998) found that 70% of schizophrenics relapsed within 1 year in high EE families compared to 30% in low EE families
                                            1. Bateson et al looked at family dynamic and suggested that communication between parents and children were contradictory ; this is referred to as a Double Bind.
                                              1. Nomura et al (2005) found that when a person recovering from the active phase of schizophrenia goes back to a family with high EE, the person is likely to relapse
                                            2. TREATMENTS
                                              1. BIOLOGICAL
                                                1. Loeble et al (1992) found that 16% of patients fail to respond to conventional neuroleptics
                                                  1. Meltzer (1999) found that up to 66% of patients with stubborn symptoms respond within 12 moths of starting Clozapine (an atypical neuroleptic)
                                                  2. BEHAVIOURAL
                                                    1. Paul and Lentz (1977) found a significant improvement in interpersonal skills and self care in a token economy programme
                                                      1. Birchwood and Spencer (1999) SST improved patients' ability, comfort and assertiveness in social situations
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