Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

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Other Psychology (General Foundations of Psychology) Mind Map on Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development, created by Anja Starc on 25/04/2016.
Anja Starc
Mind Map by Anja Starc, updated more than 1 year ago
Anja Starc
Created by Anja Starc about 8 years ago
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Resource summary

Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
  1. Piaget (1896 - 1980)
    1. Swiss
      1. worked: 1920 - 1980
        1. philosopher: genetic epistemology, constructivism
          1. psychologist: contemporary topics
          2. methods
            1. observation of children in nurseries
              1. Q & A: analysing answers & the reasoning for them
                1. dialogue
                2. tasks & puzzles: children solving puzzles, analysing their reasons for solutions they give
                3. 4 key concepts

                  Annotations:

                  • e.g.  equilibrium: familiar with birds - thinks all flying objects are birdsassimiliation: sees an airplane and calls it a birddisequilibrium: notices that places don't have feathers or flat their wingsaccommodation: concludes that places are not birds, but placesorganisation
                  1. 1. SCHEMA
                    1. = knowledge organised into chunks of similar or related answers
                      1. = concepts, theories, beliefs
                        1. it is a flexible grouping
                          1. change & develop with new experiences
                          2. = cognitive task
                          3. 2. ASSIMILATION
                            1. = inputting new info into existing schemas without changing the organisation of them
                              1. happens constantly
                                1. every time: recognise or learn sth
                                  1. difficult: if can't place an object in a pre-given concept
                                  2. 3. ACCOMMODATION
                                    1. = changning schemas to adapt to new information
                                      1. experiences that challenge one's belief
                                      2. 4. EQUILIBRIUM
                                        1. = sense of order, balance, coherence, stability in the mind
                                          1. = balanced and well-ordered schemas
                                            1. driving force = search for equilibrium
                                              1. disequilibrium = due to new info, leads to search for new state of equilibrium
                                          2. 4 stages

                                            Annotations:

                                            • child relies on different type of thinking than an adult does => they go through stages of intellectual growth
                                            1. 1. SENSORIMOTOR STAGE (o-2 yrs)
                                              1. child's own sensations

                                                Annotations:

                                                • looks at a rattle: does not perceive iit as permanent, independent object => looks away, rattle does not exist anymore
                                                1. simple reflex action patterns

                                                  Annotations:

                                                  • reaching, grasping, sucking
                                                  1. developing: sense of OBJECT PERMANENCE

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • The conviction that an object exists even when it is out of sight. Piaget believed infants didn't develop this level of understanding until the age of at least eight months.
                                                  2. 2. PREOPERATIONAL STAGE (2-7 yrs)
                                                    1. representational skills

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • 1st attempt = a person, usually with a circle for head and two vertical lines for legs
                                                      1. signs & symbols
                                                        1. counting & basic maths
                                                          1. symbolic play & symbolic representations

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • through drawing & making models
                                                            1. failure to conserve quantity & number
                                                              1. egocentrism

                                                                Annotations:

                                                                • unable to take the viewpoint of others
                                                              2. 3. CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE (7-11 yrs)

                                                                Annotations:

                                                                • know how to interrelate their mental representations concrete operation = ability to abstract a quality from concrete objects (e.g. quantity, weight, number, colour, volume, type)
                                                                1. problems dealing with objects are solvable
                                                                  1. literal meaning
                                                                    1. conservation tasks
                                                                      1. reversibility

                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                        • e.g. mathematica sums & equations can work backwards reversibility difficulties:  e.g. mummy and daddy got married twice - mummy got married to daddy and daddy got married to mummy
                                                                        1. transitivity

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          • A < B, and B < C, therefore A < C
                                                                          1. seriation task

                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                            • ability to sort objects or situations according to any characteristic, such as size, color, shape, or type
                                                                        2. 4. FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE (12+)

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          • physics, maths, literature, history
                                                                          1. hypothesis testing

                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                            • can guess the outcome of an event before it starts
                                                                            1. anticipation + planning + reflection => integrated in life
                                                                              1. prepositional logic

                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                • if - then statements
                                                                                1. ideals

                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                  • motivating visions of the future
                                                                              2. educational implications
                                                                                1. constructivist approach

                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                  • teaching isn't direct
                                                                                  1. National Curriculum
                                                                                  2. critisms
                                                                                    1. underestimation
                                                                                      1. too much: analytical cognition
                                                                                        1. beyond formal operation?
                                                                                          1. social and group influence?
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