learning approach - behaviourist


AS - Level psychology (chapter 4 - approaches in psychology ) Mind Map on learning approach - behaviourist, created by Daisy U on 03/11/2015.
Daisy  U
Mind Map by Daisy U, updated more than 1 year ago
Daisy  U
Created by Daisy U over 8 years ago

Resource summary

learning approach - behaviourist
  1. key terms
    1. behaviourist approach


      • a way of explaining behaviour in terms of what is observable and in terms of learning
      1. classical conditioning


        • learning by association - Pavlov's dogs
        1. operant condition


          • learning by consequences - Skinner's rats
          1. reinforcement


            • a consequence of behaviour that increases the liklihood of that behaviour being repeated (positive or negative)
          2. assumptions
            1. only observable behaviour
              1. no mental processes
                1. Watson rejected introspection
                  1. high control - lab
                    1. learning is the same in all species
                    2. classical conditioning
                      1. Pavlov
                        1. learning through association
                          1. used dogs to prove this
                        2. operant condition
                          1. Skinner
                            1. learning by consequences
                              1. positive reinforcement
                                1. receiving a reward - increases likelihood of behaviour being repeated
                                2. negative reinforcement
                                  1. doing something which stops something bad from happening - behaviour is likely to be repeated
                                  2. punishment
                                    1. unpleasant consequence - decreases likelihood of behaviour from happening
                                3. evaluation
                                  1. scientific credibility
                                    1. observable characteristics can be measured
                                      1. measured within a highly controlled setting
                                        1. can be repeated (replicated)
                                          1. so greater credibility
                                          2. real life application
                                            1. real world behaviours
                                              1. token economy systems in prisons
                                                1. classical condition phobias
                                                  1. less effort from patients
                                                    1. don't think about their problems
                                                  2. mechanistic view
                                                    1. all animals are passive
                                                      1. people play more of a role in their learning
                                                    2. evaluation +
                                                      1. environmental detriminism
                                                        1. behaviour determined by past experiences
                                                          1. ignores free will
                                                            1. Skinner - past conditioning determines our decisions
                                                            2. ethics
                                                              1. Skinner's box
                                                                1. animals exposed to high levels of stress
                                                                  1. adverse conditions
                                                              2. Skinner
                                                                1. used rats to demonstrate operant conditioning
                                                                  1. used positive reinforcement (treat)
                                                                    1. used punishment (electric shock)
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