PSYA1 - attachment, AQA psychology


Quiz on the key elements from the attachment section of AQA AS level psychology
Quiz by T W, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by T W almost 9 years ago

Resource summary

Question 1

The learning theory states that:
  • All behaviour is learnt rather than inborn
  • When children are born they are like blank slates
  • Everything children become can be explained in terms of experiences they have
  • Attachment is adaptive and innate
  • There is a sensitive (critical) period for which development takes place

Question 2

* Tick two of the statements below to indicate which of the following statements relate to Bowlby's evolutionary theory of attachment. (2 marks)
  • Attachment takes place during a critical period or not at all.
  • Infants become attached to the person who feeds them
  • Infants are innately programmed to form an attachment
  • Attachments are based on the principles of classical and operant conditioning

Question 3

This type of learning suggests that we learn because of the presence of food.
  • Classical conditioning
  • Operant conditioning

Question 4

What is the Neutral Stimulus for babies before classical conditioning?
  • Mother
  • Food
  • Feeling of pleasure

Question 5

What does the mother become to the baby after classical conditioning, so that the baby then responds to the mother?
  • Neutral stimulus (NS)
  • Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
  • Unconditioned response (UCR)
  • Conditioned response (CR)
  • Conditioned stimulus (CS)

Question 6

Operant conditioning takes place because of actions and rewards. An association is made between an action and a reward (reinforcer).
  • True
  • False

Question 7

What are the key elements of operant conditioning with babies?
  • The baby has to learn to form an attachment with its mother
  • The mother rewards the infant by feeding it, so that the infant associates the mother with the reward, and repeats any action that brings her close
  • Food brings a feeling of pleasure to the baby, and so is the primary reinforcer: by removing discomfort, it reinforces the behaviour that led to its arrival (negative reinforcement)
  • The mother is the secondary reinforcer, the presence of the caregiver eventually reduces discomfort and brings a feeling of pleasure. The baby repeats any action that brings the caregiver close e.g. crying
  • The baby forms an association with the mother and the feeling of pleasure that comes from being fed
  • At first, the baby simply feels comforted by food. However, each time it is fed, the mother is there too. It quickly associates the mother with the pleasure of being fed.
  • Before long, the mother stimulates a feeling of pleasure on her own without food even. This means the baby feels happier when the mother is near. It is the beginning of attachment

Question 8

Find all the strengths of the learning theory.
  • Operant conditioning cannot be investigated with humans
  • Ethical issues - morally right to use animals in this way?
  • Classical conditioning can be done with humans and animals
  • Pavlov provides evidence to suggest that we learn to attach
  • Doesn't completely answer why we become attached
  • Skinner proved operant conditioning
  • Food may not be the only UCS. Not the only reinforcer - (Harlow 1959 - contact comfort is more important than food)
  • Doesn't allow for the role of the father
  • Adequate explanation of learning to attach
  • Schaffer and Emerson (1964) showed that human studies also challenge the importance of food for attachment. They found that infants were most attached to the person who responded to them the most.

Question 9

Which of these is not a feature of Bowlby's Evolutionary theory of attachment?
  • The continuity hypothesis
  • Sensitive period
  • Internal working model
  • Reinforcers
  • Social releasers

Question 10

What is a secure base?
  • A place where a child can explore the world and have a safe haven to return to when threatened
  • A place where a child depends on their primary attachment figure the most
  • The place where a child was brought up, and can return to when threatened
  • A person who the child can return to throughout their lives when threatened

Question 11

What is the definition of monotropy?
  • The idea that the one relationship that the infant has with their primary attachment figure is of special significance in emotional development
  • Characteristics that are inborn , a product of genetic factors
  • A social behaviour or characteristic that elicits a caregiving reaction
  • The idea that emotionally secure infants go on to be emotionally secure, trusting, and socially confident adults
  • A mental model of the world that enables individuals to predict and control their environment

Question 12

What does Bowlby's theory not answer?
  • How attachment affects later romantic behaviour
  • Why some children cope with attachment that is poor and others do not (hardy personalities)
  • Evolutionary arguments are post hoc looking back for evidence
  • The period of time that the sensitive period lasts for
  • Why some children form more than one attachment

Question 13

The temperament hypothesis suggests that emotionally secure infants go on to be emotionally secure, trusting, socially confident adults, and that they create a mental model of the world to predict and control their environment
  • True
  • False
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