The Blood

Description

Anatomy and Physiology Mind Map on The Blood, created by Donnell Noeller on 04/04/2019.
Donnell Noeller
Mind Map by Donnell Noeller, updated more than 1 year ago
Donnell Noeller
Created by Donnell Noeller almost 5 years ago
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Resource summary

The Blood
  1. The Function and Composition of Blood
    1. The Function of Blood
      1. The blood is responsible for providing transportation, regulation, and protection throughout the body
        1. The blood carries waste to the kidneys and carbon dioxide to the lungs, where both the waste and carbon dioxide are eliminated from the body.
          1. The blood also protects the body against infection and regulates body temperature by directing heat towards the skin and lungs. Buffers and Amino Acids transported in the blood helps maintain the body's pH at healthy levels between 7.35 and 7.45.
          2. The Formed Elements
            1. Plasma
              1. Plasma is a pale yellow fluid composed of 90% water and 8% plasma proteins; the remaining 2% is a mixture of electrolytes, nutrients, ions, respiratory gases, hormones, proteins, and waste products.
                1. Plasma contains three types of proteins: Fibrinogen, Albumin, and Globulin.
                  1. The electrolytes include sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, and calcium.
                2. Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)
                  1. Shape and Size
                    1. Mature Red Blood Cells are disk-shaped cells that look like a doughnut without the hole in the center. They are extremely small (7 to 8 micrometers in diameter)
                      1. Mechanisms of the Red Blood Cells
                        1. 1. It increases the surface area of the cell, providing a larger binding area for oxygen and carbon dioxide.
                          1. 2. It increases the flexibility of the cell, allowing it to change shape so it can fit into capillary openings that are half the size of the cell.
                            1. 3. It limits the cell's life span to 120 days; without a nucleus, the cell is unable to replicate.
                          2. Hemoglobin
                            1. Hemoglobin is an essential molecule of the red blood cell that serves as the binding site for oxygen and carbon dioxide; composed of two molecules: Globin and Heme
                            2. Erythropoiesis
                              1. The kidneys regulate red blood cell production through a process called Erythropoiesis.
                              2. Recycling Red Blood Cells
                                1. Phagocytosis is the process by which macrophages in the liver and spleen eat and recycle old RBCs, as well as other types of cells.
                                2. Red Blood Cells are part of the formed elements of the blood; they contain hemoglobin, a protein responsible for oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange; erythrocytes
                                3. White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)
                                  1. Classifying White Blood Cells
                                    1. Neutrophils
                                      1. The most abundant type of White Blood Cells and are the most important component of the body's immune system because they are the "First Responders"
                                        1. Fights infections
                                      2. Eosinophils
                                        1. They only make up a small portion of our White Blood Cell count - about 1% to 3%.
                                          1. They are active in the presence of parasites and worms
                                        2. Basophils
                                          1. The least abundant White Blood Cells in the body.
                                            1. Active during allergic reactions and asthma.
                                              1. They play an important role in T-cell adaptive immune responses
                                            2. Lymphocytes
                                              1. The second most abundant White Blood Cells in the body.
                                                1. Two types of Lymphocytes
                                                  1. T Cells
                                                    1. T Cells make up to 80% of lymphocytes
                                                    2. B Cells
                                                      1. B Cells make up to 20% of lymphocytes
                                                    3. Essential for fighting cancer cells
                                                  2. Monocytes
                                                    1. The largest White Blood Cells in the body.
                                                  3. White Blood Cells are part of the formed elements of the blood; they fight infections and protect the body through various mechanisms; leukocytes
                                                  4. Platelets (Thrombocytes)
                                                    1. Platelets are part of the formed elements of the blood; they play a vital role in blood clotting.
                                                      1. They play an important role in Hemostasis
                                                      2. The formed elements make up about 45% of the blood's content, and plasma comprises the remaining 55%
                                                        1. When put in a Centrifugal, everything seperates. Red Blood Cells at the bottom, Plasma on top, and the buffy coat in between.
                                                          1. The buffy coat is a thin layer of white blood cells and platelets that lies between the red blood cells and plasma in a blood sample that has gone through a centrifuge.
                                                            1. Sepearating these blood elements allows us to take a common blood measurement called Hematocrit.
                                                              1. Hematocrit is the percentage of total blood volume that is composed of Red Blood Cells
                                                                1. Hematocrit averages 45% of total blood volume in men and 40% of total blood volume in women
                                                            2. Physical Properties of Blood
                                                              1. Blood is a sticky, thick fluid that makes up roughly 8% of our total body weight.
                                                                1. Everyone has between 4 and 5 liters of blood in their body.
                                                                  1. Blood is slightly salty, with a sodium chloride concentration of 0.9%.
                                                                    1. An average temperature of 38*C (100.4*F)
                                                                      1. The color of blood varies based on the levels of oxygen: Oxygen-rich blood in the arteries is a brighter red than the oxygen-poor blood in the veins.
                                                                      2. Manufacturing Blood Cells
                                                                        1. New blood cells are created in a process called Hematopoiesis.
                                                                          1. Blood Cells are created within the bone marrow.
                                                                        2. Blood Types
                                                                          1. Blood Types
                                                                            1. Antigens and Antibodies
                                                                              1. The molecule on the surface of the Red Blood Cells are called Antigens.
                                                                                1. Antigens are large, complex molecules, such as proteins and glycolipids, that identify cells as either "Self" or "Nonself"
                                                                              2. Blood Transfusions
                                                                                1. When given a Blood Transfusion you have to be given the correct type of blood
                                                                                  1. If given the wrong blood type the Red Blood Cells will clump together in a process called Agglutination.
                                                                                    1. Agglutination creates blockages in smaller blood vessels and is potentially fatal.
                                                                              3. The Rh Classification System
                                                                                1. Rh Factor Complications
                                                                                  1. Just like the Antigens on Red Blood Cells, When given blood you have to have the same type of Rh factor.
                                                                                  2. Not everyone has the Rh factor. Those who have it on the surface of the Red Blood Cells are classified as Rh-positive; those who lack it are classified as Rh-negative
                                                                                    1. The majority of people (approximately 85%) are Rh-positive.
                                                                                    2. Complete Blood Count
                                                                                      1. A complete blood count (CBC) helps to detect blood disorders or disorders such as Anemia, Abnormal Blood Cell counts, Clotting Problems, Immune System Disorders, and Cancers of the Blood.
                                                                                      2. Four Blood Types
                                                                                        1. A
                                                                                          1. B
                                                                                            1. AB
                                                                                              1. O
                                                                                            2. Blood Disorders and Diseases
                                                                                              1. Anemia
                                                                                                1. Acquired Anemias
                                                                                                  1. Iron-Deficient Anemia
                                                                                                    1. Common Anemia; caused by an insufficient dietary intake of iron, loss of iron from intestinal bleeding, or low-level depletion during pregnancy.
                                                                                                    2. Aplastic Anemia
                                                                                                      1. a rare but serious condition in which the bone marrow is incapable of making new Red Blood Cells.
                                                                                                        1. Causes
                                                                                                          1. Toxins
                                                                                                            1. Radiation Therapy or Chemotherapy
                                                                                                              1. Infectious Diseases
                                                                                                                1. Heredity
                                                                                                            2. Pernicious Anemia
                                                                                                              1. a severe anemia caused by the inability of the intestines to absorb vitamin B(12), which is essential for the formation of Red Blood Cells; usually develops in older adults
                                                                                                              2. Anemias Caused by Chronic Disease
                                                                                                              3. Inherited Anemias
                                                                                                                1. Sickle Cell Anemia
                                                                                                                  1. a disease in which the Red Blood Cells are shaped like a sickle, or cresent, rather than a disk; caused by irregularly shaped hemoglobin molecules in the Red Blood Cells
                                                                                                                  2. Cooley's Anemia
                                                                                                                    1. a condition that affects the body's ability to produce fully developed hemoglobin and Red Blood Cells; thalassemia major
                                                                                                                2. Jaundice
                                                                                                                  1. a blood disorder characterized by yellow-colored skin and whites of the eyes.
                                                                                                                  2. Hemophilia
                                                                                                                    1. a condition in which blood does not clot properly due to the absence of a clotting factor.
                                                                                                                    2. Polycythemia
                                                                                                                      1. a condition in which the bone marrow manufactures too many Red Blood Cells; caused by prolonged altitude exposure and a genetic mutation.
                                                                                                                      2. Leukemia
                                                                                                                        1. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
                                                                                                                          1. the most common form of leukemia in adults over 70 years of age; characterized by overproduction of lymphocytes.
                                                                                                                          2. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
                                                                                                                            1. the most common form of leukemia in adults; develops when the bone marrow produces too many myeloblasts.
                                                                                                                            2. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
                                                                                                                              1. a form of leukemia characterized by extremely high levels of lymphocytes; most often found in middle-age adults.
                                                                                                                              2. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)
                                                                                                                                1. a form of leukemia characterized by overproduction of granulocytes.
                                                                                                                              3. Multiple Myeloma
                                                                                                                                1. a cancer of the plasma cells in bone marrow
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