No more diets


Mind Map on No more diets, created by amna mohd on 26/11/2017.
amna mohd
Mind Map by amna mohd, updated more than 1 year ago
amna mohd
Created by amna mohd over 6 years ago

Resource summary

No more diets
  1. Adrenal gland
    1. Anatomy of the adrenal gland
      1. Histology of adrenal gland
        1. Layers of Adrenal gland
          1. Cortex
            1. Hormones Secreted
              1. Glucocorticoids - Cortisol
                1. Produced in response to ACTH
                  1. Normal physiology of ACTH
                    1. Excess amount of ACTH released lead to Cushing Syndrome
                      1. Cushing Syndrome
                        1. What is it?
                          1. A pituitary gland tumor (pituitary adenoma). A noncancerous (benign) tumor of the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, secretes an excess amount of ACTH, which in turn stimulates the adrenal glands to make more cortisol. When this form of the syndrome develops, it's called Cushing disease.
                          2. Pathophysiology
                            1. Signs and symptoms
                              1. Women with Cushing syndrome
                                1. Hirsutism
                                  1. Dysmenorrhea or Amenorrhea
                                  2. Men with Cushing syndrome
                                    1. Decreased libido
                                      1. Decreased fertility
                                        1. Erectile dysfunction
                                        2. General S & S
                                          1. Severe fatigue
                                            1. Muscle weakness
                                              1. Depression, anxiety and irritability
                                                1. Loss of emotional control
                                                  1. Cognitive difficulties
                                                    1. New or worsened high blood pressure
                                                      1. Headache
                                                        1. Bone loss, leading to fractures over time
                                                          1. In children, impaired growth
                                                        2. Risk factors
                                                          1. Female
                                                            1. 25-40 years old
                                                              1. Exogenous (Cushing’s syndrome):
                                                                1. Organ Transplant
                                                                  1. Chemotherapy (Long term use of steroids).
                                                                    1. Autoimmune diseases.
                                                                      1. Asthma.
                                                                        1. Allergies.
                                                                          1. Chronic inflammatory diseases.
                                                                            1. Obesity.
                                                                              1. Hypertension.
                                                                                1. Type II diabetes.
                                                                              2. Diagnosis
                                                                                1. Epidemiology
                                                                                  1. An estimated 10-15 per million people are affected every year.
                                                                                    1. Pituitary adenomas (Cushing’s disease) account for more than 70 percent of cases in adults and about 60-70 percent of cases in children and adolescents.
                                                                                      1. Cushing’s syndrome most commonly affects adults ages 20-50 and is more prevalent in females, accounting for about 70 percent of all cases.
                                                                                      2. Management
                                                                                        1. Pharmacology
                                                                                          1. Medications to control excessive production of cortisol at the adrenal gland include ketoconazole (Nizoral), mitotane (Lysodren) and metyrapone (Metopirone).
                                                                                            1. Mechanism of action
                                                                                              1. Clnical use
                                                                                                1. Replacement therapy
                                                                                                  1. Immunosuppressive Therapy
                                                                                                    1. Raised intracranial pressure
                                                                                                      1. skin diseases
                                                                                                        1. Cancer
                                                                                                          1. Acceleration of fetal lung maturation
                                                                                                          2. Contradications
                                                                                                            1. Cushing’s syndrome
                                                                                                              1. Dibetes mellitus
                                                                                                                1. Heart failure
                                                                                                                  1. Renal failure
                                                                                                                  2. Adverse Effects
                                                                                                                  3. Surgery and its side effects
                                                                                                                    1. Procedure
                                                                                                                      1. To do this surgery, the neurosurgeon makes a small incision (cut) along the nasal septum. Lateralization of the Middle turbinate, sphenoid ostium, Enlarging of the sphenoid ostium, sphenoid sinus, partial Posterior vomer removal, The thinned anterior sella wall, Removal of the sphenoid septum, Openning of the anterior sella wall, Incision of the dura, Cutting the soft tumor, Aspiration of the tumor, Medial wall of the cavernous sinus, removal of what is left of tumor, repair.
                                                                                                                      2. Complications
                                                                                                                        1. Sinus headache and congestion for up to a week or 2 after surgery.
                                                                                                                          1. Brain damage, a stroke, or blindness if a nerve or artery is damaged
                                                                                                                            1. Meningitis, infections, leakage of cerebrospinal fluid from the nose
                                                                                                                              1. Diabetes insipidus
                                                                                                                                1. Lack of pituitary hormones
                                                                                                                    2. Mineralocorticoids - Aldosterone
                                                                                                                      1. Androgens
                                                                                                                    3. Medulla
                                                                                                                      1. Hormones Secreted
                                                                                                                        1. Stress hormones - Epinephrine & Norepinephrine
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