Chemistry Edexcel C2 topic 1+topic 2 notes


Hey everyone, I have made notes on topic 1 and 2 on the edexcel syllabus in C2, I have done a test on these topics and got an A! So I hope this helps.
Flashcards by isabellaoliver, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by isabellaoliver almost 10 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
I can describe the structure of an atom showing the position of protons, neutrons and electrons. At the centre of an atom is a nucleus containing protons and neutrons. Electrons are arranged around the nucleus in energy levels or shells.
I can define an atom? The smallest particle of a chemical element that can exist. They are also known as the building blocks of elements.
I can explain that the number of protons is the same as the number of electrons. Both protons and electrons have an electrical charge. Both have the same size of electrical charge, but the proton is positive and the electron negative.
I can explain the meaning of atomic number. The atomic number of an atom is the number of protons it contains. All the atoms of a particular element have the same atomic number (number of protons).
I can explain the meaning of atomic mass number. The atomic mass number of an atom is the total number of protons and neutrons it contains. The mass number of an atom is never smaller than the atomic number.
I can describe an elements as metal or non-metal just by looking at the periodic table.
I can describe how Mendeleev organised the periodic table and how the modern table is arranged. Mendeleev arranged the elements known at the time in order of relative atomic mass. The modern periodic table is a chart containing the elements arranged in order of increasing atomic number. A vertical column, called a group, contains elements with similar properties. A horizontal row is called a period. The atomic number of the elements in a period increases from left to right along the row.
I can describe the structure of an atom showing the position of protons, neutrons and electrons. (Picture)
How is the modern periodic table arranged. (Picture)
I can describe how positive and negative ions are formed. The transferring of electrons is the reason that positive and negative ions are formed. If an atom gains electrons, it becomes negative. If it looses electrons, it becomes positive.
I can explain why an atom might want to loose or gain electrons. An atom wants to get a full outter shell of 8. The first shell has always 2 electrons and then they increase by 8. An atom in group 1 would loose one electron and give it to an element in group 7, so that it would have a full outer shell. However, now it would be positive.
I can explain that ionic bonding is an electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged particles. Atoms that are oppositely charged attract. for example an ion from group 1 and an ion from group 7 would attract because the ion from group 1 is positive an the atom from group 7 is negative
I can say which ions are present in an ion due to its name. Ions from only one element are monoatomic. Monoatomic cations have the same name as the element from which they were made. eg: a sodium atom becomes a sodium ion. Momoatomic anions have the same name as the element they were made from, however, they end in -ide. Chlorine atoms become chloride ions.
I can write the charge for an ion The charge corresponds to the group of the atom. group 1= + group 2=2+ group 3= 3+ group 4= either +/- depending on which electrons transfere group 5=3- group 6=2- group 7=- group 0/8=no charge
What is a cation and what is an anion? Cations (positively-charged ions) and anions (negatively-charged ions). remember it as anions are like onions and onions make you cry. Crying is not nice, it is negative.
I can say which ions are present in an compound ion due to its name. Compound ions are called polyatomic. Polymatomic cations. NaCl=we know na is sodium and cl is chlorine. Chlorine is in group 7 so the compound is sodium chloride.
I can workout the formulation of a compound if I know the name. Example-sodium oxide(polyatomic) Sodium is in group 1. Oxygen is in group 6. Na(1+) O(2-) swap the charges =Na2O1 simplify it to Na2O. Example-Potassium Carbonate (the ate means that oxygen is in the compound) K+ (CO3)2- swap the charges K2(CO3)1 simplify= K2CO3
I know the ionic substance properties Metal ions loose electrons and non-metal gain electrons. They have high melting and boiling points, this is because a lot of energy is needed to break the ionic bonds. They do not conduct electricity in solid forms. This is because the ions are in fixed positions and cannot move. They conduct electricity in molten or in solution. This is because the particles must be able to move. The particles must also be charged.
I can use the solubility rules to decide if an ionic substance is soluble.
I can list the flame colours of sodium, potassium, calcium and copper. sodium-yellow/orange potassium-lilac calcium-red copper-green/blue
I can list the mass of protons, neutrons and electrons Protons + neutrons=1 Electrons=0
I can explain the meaning of an isotope. A form of an element which contains equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, and hence differ in relative atomic mass but not in chemical properties
I can describe how Madeleev predicted the existence and properties of unknown elements by looking at the properties of known elements. He realised that the physical and chemical properties of elements were related to their atomic mass in a 'periodic' way, and arranged them so that groups of elements with similar properties fell into vertical columns in his table. Sometimes this method of arranging elements meant there were gaps in his horizontal rows or 'periods'. But instead of seeing this as a problem, Mendeleev thought it simply meant that the elements which belonged in the gaps had not yet been discovered. He was also able to work out the atomic mass of the missing elements, and so predict their properties.
I can write the electron arrangement of an atom using the periodic table and the 2.8.8 system. The group of the element corresponds to their last number in their outer shell. If the element is in group 1, they will have 1 electron in their most outer shell.
I can write the electronic structure of an ion.
I can explain why isotopes exist. Atoms want to 'fill up' their shells to 8.
I can use the name of an ionic compound to write it's formuale Ammonium Sulphate Ammonium=(NH4) 1+ Sulphate= (SO4) 2- swap the charges (NH4)2(SO4)1 simplify (NH4)2SO4
I can write a formula equation for a precipitation reaction using the correct state symbols. In a precipitation reaction, ions collide with one another to form an insoluble product (one that does not dissolve in water). This is the precipitate. soulabe reactant(aq)+soluable reactant(aq)- soulable product(aq)+insoluable product (s)
I can describe an experiment to create an insoluble salt. Choose to soluble compounds, choose potassium, sodium or ammonium hydroxide or carbonate and mix it with lead, calcium or silver nitrate. For example if you wanted silver chloride, mix silver nitrate and sodium chloride. The sodium nitrate will be soluable. steps: mix solutions of the the reactants Filter to seperate the insoluable salt Keep filtering water as this will dissolve any sodium nitrate to go through the filter paper. Allow to dry
I can test for carbonates. Carbonate- Acid is added to the test compound. If carbonate ions are present then carbon dioxide gas bubbles off. If this is passed through limewater is turns the limewater from clear to cloudy.
I can test for sulphates. You can test to see if a solution contains sulfate ions by using barium chloride. If barium chloride solution is added to a sample of water containing sulfate ions, barium sulfate is formed. Barium sulfate is insoluble in water, and will be seen as a white precipitate.
I can test for chlorides. Chlorides-If you add silver nitrate to the solution a white precipitate forms. It has heavy molecules and so many white chalky molecules fall to the bottom of the beaker
I can state the protons and neutrons in an atom given the periodic table. The atomic number(bottom number) is the proton number. To work out the neutron number you do the mass number takeaway the atomic number.
I can calculate the relative atomic mass of an element given the abundance of each isotope. (% of isotope 1(relative abundance) × mass of isotope 1) + (% of isotope 2 × mass of isotope 2) ÷ 100
I can predict the properties of an element given the properties of another element with the same number of electrons in the outer shell. As elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in their outer shell, they have similar chemical properties. Those with less than 3 electrons are metal and those with four or more are non-metal. All group 2 elements react with oxygen to form compounds with the formula XO
I know which groups are most reactive Group 1 and 7 because they have fewer electrons to be lost or gained.
I can predict whether an element will form a positive or negative ion and how many charges it would carry. Metal atoms form positive ions by giving electrons. They become cations. Non-metal atoms form negative ions called cations by gaining electrons. If it is from group 1 it loose 1 electron and become x+. If it is from group 6, it gains an electron and becomes x-.
I can explain why ionic substances conduct electricity when dissolved or in molten Ionic substances are in large lattice structures.An ionic lattice is a structure of millions of atomic formations of an ionic substance, structured like building blocks into one three-dimensional formation. ionic substances can conduct electricity when dissolved or in water because the charged ions can easily move towards oppositely charged electrodes (a conductor through which electricity enters or leaves an object, substance, or region). Ionic substances do not conduct electricity when solid because the ions are not able to move in the fixed lattice structure.
I can suggest suitable reactants to make an insoluble salt. potassium, ammonium and sodium hydroxide or a carbonate mixed with any element lower in the reactivity series( eg. lead)nitrate, chloride or sulfate.
I can explain the use of barium sulfate in X-rays. The patient drinks a suspension of barium sulfate. Once it has passed through thee gut, the patient is X-rayed. The X-ray shows a silhouette of the gut and any abnormalities can been seen. Barium sulfate is toxic, but because it is very insoluble, it is not absorbed by the bloodstream and so is safe to drink.
I can explain how scientists use emission spectroscopy. All atoms give off light when heated, although sometimes this light is not visible to the human eye. A prism can be used to split this light to form a spectrum, and each element has its own distinctive line spectrum. This technique is known as spectroscopy. The emission spectrum of an unknown substance can be compared with standard spectra of elements to see which one it matches. This led to the discovery of rubidium from lepidolite and caesium from Durkheim mineral water.
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