GCSE AQA Chemistry 2 Salts & Electrolysis

Description

Mind map showing information about acids, alkalis, making salts, electrolysis, extraction of aluminium and electroplating.
Lilac Potato
Mind Map by Lilac Potato, updated more than 1 year ago
Lilac Potato
Created by Lilac Potato almost 8 years ago
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Resource summary

GCSE AQA Chemistry 2 Salts & Electrolysis
  1. Acids & Alkalis
    1. Acid: substance with pH less than 7, form H+ ions in water
      1. Base: substance with pH greater than 7
        1. Alkali: base that dissolves in water, form OH- ions in water
        2. Neutralisation: acid + base --> salt + water
          1. Acids & metals
            1. Acid + metal (oxide/hydroxide) --> salt + hydrogen
            2. Ammonia
              1. Dissolves in water --> alkaline solution
                1. Ammonia + Nitric acid --> Ammonium nitrate
                  1. Ammonium nitrate - good fertiliser, has nitrogen from 2 sources, plants need nitrogen to make proteins
              2. Making salts
                1. Making soluble salts using a metal/insoluble base
                  1. Filter out excess, evaporate & crystallise
                  2. Making soluble salts using an alkali
                    1. Neutralise, repeat to remove indicator, evaporate & cystallise
                    2. Making insoluble salts - precipitation reactions
                      1. Filter salt out, wash & dry
                    3. Electrolysis
                      1. Splitting up with electricity - requires electrolyte
                        1. Contains free electrons - conduct electricity
                          1. Needs flow of electrons, electrons taken away at +ve electrode & given to other ions at -ve electrode
                          2. Oxidation & reduction
                            1. Oxidation Is Loss of electrons
                              1. Reduction Is Gain of electrons
                              2. Reactivity affects products formed
                                1. At -ve electrode - if metal ions & H+ ions present, metal ions will stay in solution if metal is more reactive than hydrogen - keener to stay as ions
                                  1. At +ve electrode - if OH- & halide ions are present, molecules of chlorine formed, if no halide, oxygen formed
                                2. Electrolysis of Sodium Chloride solution produces...
                                  1. Hydrogen
                                    1. Chlorine
                                      1. Bleach & plastics
                                      2. Sodium hydroxide
                                        1. Soap
                                      3. Extraction of aluminium
                                        1. Cryolite lowers temp, & costs
                                          1. Electrodes made of carbon - CO2 - 'eaten away'
                                            1. Aluminium forms at -ve electrode Oxygen forms at +ve electrode
                                            2. Electroplating
                                              1. At -ve electrode - metal object you want to plate
                                                1. At +ve electrode - pure metal
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