GCSE AQA Chemistry 1 Fuels & The Environment


Mind map showing information about crude oil (uses and properties), how it's used as a fuel and environmental problems.
Lilac Potato
Mind Map by Lilac Potato, updated more than 1 year ago
Lilac Potato
Created by Lilac Potato about 8 years ago

Resource summary

GCSE AQA Chemistry 1 Fuels & The Environment
  1. Crude Oil
    1. Mixture of hydrocarbons
      1. Fuels made of carbon & hydrogen
        1. No chemical bonds - keep their original properties
          1. Can separate using fractional distillation
            1. Column works continuously - heated crude oil pumped in at bottom
              1. Vaporised oil rises up & various fractions tapped off as they condense
        2. Properties
          1. Made up of hydrocarbons - alkanes
            1. Chains of carbon atoms surrounded by hydrogen atoms
              1. Different length chains
                1. Carbon forms 4 bonds & hydrogen forms 1
                2. First 4: Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane
                  1. Forms as many bonds as possible - saturated
                  2. Shorter molecules - more runny (less viscous)
                    1. Shorter molecules - more volatile
                      1. Shorter molecules - more flammable
                  3. General formula: CnH2n+2
                  4. Uses
                    1. Volatilty - refinery gas - good as bottled gas
                      1. Petrol - higher boiling point - liquid
                        1. Viscous hydrocarbons - lubricants
                  5. Crude oil as a fuel
                    1. Burn cleanly so good fuels
                      1. Transport, central heating, power stations
                      2. Also provides raw materials for making chemicals - plastics
                        1. Alternatives are possible but things are set up for oil fractions - easier, cheaper & more reliable
                          1. Will run out - non-renewable fuel
                            1. New reserves being discovered & technology improving
                              1. Should start conserving & finding alternatives
                            2. Environmental problems
                              1. Burning fossil fuels
                                1. Power stations & cars
                                  1. hydrocarbon + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water vapour
                                    1. Energy (heat) also produced
                                      1. If fuel contains sulphur impurities - sulphur dioxide released
                                        1. If enough oxygen - complete combustion, if not then partial
                                          1. Soot, unburnt fuel & carbon monoxide released
                                            1. Global Dimming - particles reflect sunlight back into Space
                                          2. Causes acid rain - sulphur dioxide mixes with clouds to form dilute sulphuric acid
                                            1. Same with nitrogen oxides
                                              1. Plants & animals die, kills trees, damages limestone buildings & statues & possible health probs
                                                1. Reducing sulphur emissions
                                                  1. Can be removed before burning - £££
                                                    1. Power stations have Acid Gas Scrubbers - take harmful gas out before release
                                          3. Increasing carbon dioxide = Climate Change
                                            1. Causes global warming, changing rainfall patterns, flooding
                                            2. Alternative fuels being developed
                                              1. Ethanol - plant material - biofuel from fermentation
                                                1. Carbon neutral, engines need to be converted, stop growing crops
                                                2. Biodiesel - vegetable oils
                                                  1. Carbon neutral, don't need to convert engines, can't make enough to replace diesel, expensive
                                                  2. Hydrogen gas - electrolysis of water
                                                    1. Clean, need special engine, not widely available, hard to store
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