|Why is crude oil a mixture?
|CONTAINS MANY HYDROCARBONS WHICH ARE NOT CHEMICALLY BONDED
|What process is used to separate crude oil
|What is different about the compounds in the mixture which allow it to be separated in this way?
|THEY HAVE DIFFERENT BOILING POINTS
|Explain Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil
|CRUDE OIL IS EVAPORATED AT THE BASE OF THE COLUMN THE VAPOUR RISES AND CONDENSES AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES THE CONDENSED OIL IS LET OUT AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF THE COLUMN
|Trends of crude oil molecules?
|SHORTER MOLECULES = MORE RUNNY AND LESS VISCOUS SHORTER MOLECULES = MORE VOLATILE (EASIER TO EVAPORATE) SHORTER MOLECULE = MORE FLAMMABLE
|Consequences of crude oil use?
|OIL SPILLS CAN OCCUR WHICH CAN KILL OR AFFECT ANIMALS. BURNING OIL IS A CAUSE FOR GLOBAL WARMING, ACID RAIN AND GLOBAL DIMMING
|What is the general formula for alkanes?
|What is the general formula for alkenes?
|What is the difference between alkanes and alkenes?
|ALKANES ARE SATURATED AND ALKENES ARE UNSATURATED ALKENES HAVE A DOUBLE BOND AND ALKANES HAVE A SINGLE BOND
|What is a hydrocarbon?
|A COMPOUND WITH HYDROGEN AND CARBON ATOMS ONLY.
|What type of bond is between the C and H atoms in hydrocarbons?
|What pollutant causes global dimming?
|What two pollutants cause acid rain?
|SULPHUR DIOXIDE AND NITROGEN OXIDE
|Why do nitrogen and oxygen react in car engines?
|DUE TO HIGH TEMPERATURES THEY REACT
|What environmental problem is caused by carbon dioxide?
|What is produced in incomplete combustion?
|Name a biofuel
|BIODIESEL OR ETHANOL
|How are these produced?
|FROM PLANT MATERIAL
|What is it called when long chain hydrocarbons are broken down into smaller ones?
|What are the conditions used for cracking?
|HIGH TEMPERATURE (400 to 700oC) AND CATALYST
|How many bonds can carbon form?
|What reagent is used to test for saturation?
|Are alkenes saturated or unsaturated?
|What happens if you add bromine water to alkenes?
|GOES FROM ORANGE TO COLOURLESS
|What about if you add it to an alkane?
|STAYS ORANGE (NO REACTION)
|What is it called when small alkene monomers join to make a long chain?
|What must happen before the alkenes can join together?
|DOUBLE BOND BREAKS
|What does non biodegradable mean?
|CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN BY MICROORGANISMS
|Why is this a problem for plastics?
|THEY TAKE UP SPACE IN LAND FILL SITES
|What do products are formed when sugars are fermented?
|ETHANOL AND CARBON DIOXIDE
|Give one more way of making ethanol
|HYDRATION OF ETHENE WITH STEAM IN THE PRESENCE OF A CATALYST
|Uses of polymers in industry
|-NEW PACKAGING MATERIALS -WATERPROOF COATING -WOUND DRESSINGS -SMART MATERIALS
|Give some features of copper
|GOOD CONDUCTOR OF ELECTRICITY AND HEAT UNREACTIVE WITH WATER USED FOR WIRING AND PLUMBING CAN BE BENT BUT HARD ENOUGH FOR PIPES
|What is Oxidation?
|ADDING OXYGEN TO A SUBSTANCE
|What is Reduction?
|LOSS OF OXYGEN FROM A SUBSTANCE
|What and how is used to detect CO2?
|LIMEWATER IS USED TO DETECT CO2 AND TURNS CLOUDY IF IT IS PRESENT
|What are features of a transition metal?
|ALLOWS HEAT AND ELECTRICITY TO PASS
|Name 4 alkanes
|-METHANE -ETHANE -PROPANE -BUTANE
|How many Carbon atoms are there in Propane?
|How many Carbon atoms are there in Butane?
|How many Carbon atoms are there in Methane?
|How many Carbon atoms are there in Ethane?
|What can crude oil be used for?
|CENTRAL HEATING IN HOMES, ELECTRICITY IN POWER STATIONS
|Advantages of using biofuels
|INCREASED INCOME FOR FARMERS LOWER FUEL PRICES
|Disadvantages of using biofuels
|REQUIRES MORE PEOPLE TO PRODUCE IT
|What is the polymerised version of Propene?
|How is oil extracted from plants and vegetables?
|THEY ARE CRUSHED BY PRESSING OR DISTILLATION AND OIL IS EXTRACTED
|Why is oil used for cooking rather than water?
|OIL HAVE A HIGHER BOILING POINT AND ADDS FLAVOUR PROVIDES ENERGY
|How many one C=C bonds do monounsaturated fats contain?
|Do polyunsaturated fats contain more than one C=C bond?
|How are unsaturated vegetable oils hydrogenated?
|THEY ARE REACTED WITH HYDROGEN IN THE PRESENCE OF A NICKEL CATALYST AT ABOUT 60oC
|How does hydrogen affect bonds in unsaturated vegetable oils?
|THEY BREAK OPEN THE DOUBLE BONDED CARBONS
|Why are vegetable oils hardened?
|SO THEY CAN BE USED AS SPREADS LIKE BUTTER
|What are some advantages of hardening vegetable oils?
|THEY HAVE A HIGHER MELTING POINT, ARE CHEAPER AND CAN LAST LONGER
|What is the disadvantage of hydrogenating vegetable oils?
|IT CAN LEAVE THE OIL WITH TRANSFATS WHICH ARE BAD FOR YOUR HEALTH
|What are emulsifiers?
|THEY ARE SUBSTANCES WHICH KEEP SUBSTANCES TOGETHER
|What are the features of an emulsifier?
|THEY HAVE A HYDROPHILIC HEAD (ATTRACTED TO WATER) AND A HYDROPHOBIC TAIL (ATTRACTED TO OIL)
|Explain how an emulsifier works
|THE HYDROPHOBIC TAIL DISSOLVES IN THE OIL AND THE HYDROPHILIC HEAD IS ATTRACTED TO THE WATER. THIS ALLOWS THE HEAD TO LATCH ONTO THE WATER WHILE THE TAIL IS JOINED TO THE OIL CAUSING THE OIL AND WATER TO NOT SEPARATE OUT
|Features of an emulsifier in food
|PROVIDES BETTER TEXTURE GIVES COATING ABILITY AND APPEARANCE
|Things which have emulsifiers in them?
|SALAD DRESSINGS, ICE CREAM, COSMETICS AND PAINT
|How are convection currents produced?
|CAUSED BY RADIOACTIVE PROCESSES IN THE MANTLE RELEASING HEAT
|What was the Earth like in the first billion years?
|INTENSE VOLCANIC ACTIVITY GASES FORMED FROM ERUPTIONS
|Atmosphere in the Early atmosphere?
|MOSTLY CO2 AND LITTLE OXYGEN SMALL PROPORTIONS OF WATER VAPOUR, METHANE AND AMMONIA
|Reasons why there is little CO2 in the atmosphere today?
|ABSORBED BY PLANTS IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS ABSORBED BY SEDIMENTARY ROCKS DISSOLVED IN OCEANS
|Explain the Miller-Urey Primordial Soup Theory
|MIXTURE OF WATER, AMMONIA, METHANE AND HYDROGEN INTO A STERILE FLASK. MIXTURE IS HEATED TO PRODUCE WATER VAPOUR. ELECTRIC SPARKS PASSED THROUGH MIXTURE OF WATER VAPOUR AND GASES TO STIMULATE LIGHTNING AFTER A WEEK, AMINO ACIDS WERE FOUND IN THE FLASK WHICH WERE SHOWN TO PRODUCE ORGANIC MATTER
|Explain the process of fractionally distilling air
|AIR IS FILTERED TO REMOVE DUST IT IS COOLED TO -200oC TO BECOME A LIQUID WATER VAPOUR CONDENSES AND IS REMOVED CO2 FREEZES AND IS REMOVED LIQUIFIED AIR ENTERS THE COLUMN AND IS HEATED SLOWLY REMAINING GASES ARE SEPARATED, OXYGEN AND ARGON COME OUT OF A SEPARATE COLUMN
|Where do earthquakes and/ volcanic eruptions occur?
|BETWEEN TECTONIC PLATES
|What happens to hydrogen and carbon during combustion of hydrocarbons?
|They are oxidised
|What was the aim of the Miller Urey Experiment?
|To see if today's substances could be made in those conditions
|3 advantages of using plastic bags made of poly ethene
|Bags can be reused Money charged can be used for good causes Can be burnt for heat
|3 disadvantages of using plastic bags made of poly ethene
|Can take years to biodegrade Landfill space limited Production of polyethene releases CO2 = global warming