|Highly reactive single atom or group of atoms with unpaired electrons.
|Ions or molecules with a lone pair of electrons that attack positive ions or positive centres in molecules.
|Reactive ions or molecules which attack negative ions or centres in molecules.
|The equal share or electrons in the covalent bond, so when the bond breaks both atoms each take one electron. This produces free radicals.
|An unequal share of electrons in the covalent bond, so when the bond breaks one atom will be negatively charged (as it has gained an electron) and the other atom will be positively charged (as it has lost an electron).
|Where the carbon arrangement is varied for the same molecular formula.
|Where the position of a functional group or substituent differs, but it still gives the same molecular formula.
|Functional Group isomerism
|Where a different functional group is present, but it still gives the same molecular formula.
|Takes place when a double bond is present and there is restricted rotation around the double bond.
|Where atoms are connected in the same order, but with a different arrangement in space.
|The number of atoms of different elements in one molecule of a compound.
|Shows all of the atoms and all of the bonds between them in one molecule of a compound.
|Shows which atoms or groups of atoms are attached to each other. Can also be represented by drawing the display formula as it shows what atoms are attached to each other.
|The simplest whole number ratio of the atoms of different elements in a compound.
|Shows the functional group fully, but the hydrocarbon part simply as lines between carbon atoms, omitting the symbols for hydrogen and carbon atoms.