|Why did Pope Urban II call the First Crusade?
|1. Ambitious Politician-wanted to assert control over Holy Roman Empire (Erdmann thesis) 2. Response to Byzantine plea at the Council of Piacenza, 1095, and to help the Eastern Christians 3. Use the plea as a tool to unite the Greek Orthodox Church with the Catholic Church (supreme ruler of Christendom) after schism in 1054 4. Loss of Manzikert in 1071-rise of Islam
|What motivated peasants to go on the First Crusade?
|1. Piety and the lure of Jerusalem (capture it) 2.Remission of sins and salvation (fear of the afterlife) 3. The desire for fortune-nothing to lose 4. Help their Eastern brothers as mentioned at the Council of Clermont in 1095
|What motivated Knights to go on the First crusade?
|1. Knightly ethos-protect their feudal Lord (as Christians this being Jesus) 2. A solution to a knight's dilemma (killing is a sin but gain prestige through killing-remission of sins for killing the infidel) 3. Genuine piety e.g. Godfrey of Lorraine 4. Landless younger sons seeking fortune (dis-proven)
|Why did the Peasants'/People's Crusade fail?
|1. Poor leadership-Walter Sansavoir and Peter the Hermit lacked military experience 2. Poor organisation-setting off 4 months before the Pope's set date 3. Poor organisation leading to indiscipline (pillaging for food led to animosity e.g. Hungary)-a rabble 4. Lack of Byzantine help (sending them straight into Asia Minor without guides or food) 5. Lack of unity-Rainaldo, Geoffrey Burel and Peter the Hermit argued and this allowed the Muslims to fight small contingents e.g. at Xerigordon and Civetot
|Why did the Knights' crusade (First Crusade) succeed?
|1. Good Leadership-e.g. Bohemund at Dorylaeum (but didn't go to Jerusalem and still defeated the Muslims), Godfrey at Jerusalem 2. Religious Fervour (Bartholomew and the Holy Lance at Antioch; visions of Adhemer Le Puy at Jerusalem) 3. Muslim disunity-Arslan away fighting Danishmend Turks; Kerbogha's army not assisted by Duqaq and Ridwan at Antioch 4. Byzantine help-guides and supplies (desperately needed)
|Why did Edessa fall in 1144?
|LONG TERM: 1. Nature of crusading-crusaders return home leaving the crusader states without man power 2. Edessa geographically isolated by Mosul and Aleppo 3. Joscelin of Edessa fell out with Raymond of Antioch and Raymond of Tripoli-lost allies to help him 4. Growing strength of Islam under Jihad and Zengi of Mosul SHORT TERM: Joscelin left Edessa in 1144, leaving Zengi to walk in with little resistance
|Why did Pope Eugenius III call the Second Crusade? Quantum praedecessores
|1. Fall of Edessa 2. Fear of growing strength of Islam (now united) 3. Louis VII wanted a crusade for salvation following the burning of a church (the Pope wanted to assert his supremacy of the campaign as ruler of Christendom) 4. Plea from Queen Melisende-Baldwin III was a young boy and not capable of defending Jerusalem on his own
|What motivated participants to go on the Second crusade?
|1. Remission of sins/fear of Judgement Day 2. Piety 3. Knightly ethos 4. A solution to the Knight's dilemma 5. Preaching of Bernard of Clairvaux 6. Follow their relatives from the previous (successful) crusade
|Why did Bernard of Clairvaux preach the Second Crusade (at Vezelay in 1146)?
|1. Piety-please God 2. Good ally of the Pope-assist him to assert his control over Louis' campaign 3. Rudolf, a fellow Cistercian monk, was preaching anti-semitism in the Rhine 4. Fall of Edessa in 1144
|Why did the Second Crusade fail?
|1. Muslim unity-Nur ad-Din had united Islam e.g. at Damascus Saif al-Din and Nur ad-Din came to Unur's rescue 2. Lack of Byzantine help-Manuel had a peace treay with Arslan II so gave little food and guides lead Louis VII along mountains 3. Franks and crusaders disunity-Conrad accused the Franks of accepting bribes at Damascus; Raymond of Antioch wouldn't help Louis when Louis refused to go to Aleppo (Joscelin wouldn't help as Edessa wasn't in the plans) 4. Roger of Sicily wouldn't help as he wouldn't help an ally of Manuel (Conrad), Manuel wouldn't help as he wouldn't help an ally of Roger (Louis) 5. Stength of Kilij Arslan II-crushed the crusaders at Dorylaeum and Laodicea in late 1147 and Mt. Cadmus in 1148 6. Poor planning-not crossing Asia Minor together; Louis only packing enough money for three weeks (had to request more from Abbot Suger); Louis didn't accept Roger's offer of an overseas journey 7. Attempted too much (Bernard's fault)-crusaders didn't focus on the Middle East but on Iberia and the Baltics too
|Why did Pope Gregory VIII call the Third Crusade? (audita tremendi)
|1. The defeat at the Battle of Hattin, 1187 (panicked the papacy into action) 2. Saladin's growing power and invincibility status was worrying the Pope 3. Succession crisis in Jerusalem between Conrad of Montferrat and Guy of Lusignan-needed to be sorted 4. Carry on Urban III's call
|Why did Richard the Lionheart go on the Third Crusade?
|1. Personal connections to the Holy Land-relation of Fulk of Anjou, King of Jerusalem 1131-1142 2. Rivalry between himself and King Philip II of France-had to go if Philip went 3. Inherited Henry II's vast empire-needed to show his military prowess in order to gain respect (keep his land without constant invasions) 4. Feudal lord of the Lusignan family-had to go to help Guy
|Why did the Third Crusade Fail?
|1. Bad luck-Barbarossa drowned (Turks wouldn't dare attack his vast army but it disbanded following his death); death of William II of Sicily-promised money and a fleet but Tancred de Lecce his successor kept it all; epidemic in Antioch 2. Disunity between Philip and Richard-when Philip left Rihcard had no alternative as he feared for his unprotected kingdom 3. Lack of religious zeal-came close to Jerusalem twice but turned away 4. Not a failure-Saladin lost his invincibility status (many defeats e.g. Jaffa, Arsuf, Acre); recaptured the Palestinian coast (Treaty of Jaffa 1192); Acquisition of Cyprus-longest standing crusader state
|Why did Pope Innocent III call the Fourth Crusade? (Post miserable)
|1. Take Jerusalem after the disappointing Third Crusade (post miserable) 2. Assert control over Henry VI campaign which got to Beirut but ended when he died in 1197 3. Opportune time-Saladin's death in 1193 led to a succession crisis 4. Stabilise politics between England and France (Richard and Philip) 5. Keen to show strength of Christendom-called many crusades in his reign as Pope
|Why did participants go on the Fourth Crusade?
|(Slow to start with, little interest) 1. Preaching of Fulk of Neuilly at the Tournament of Ecry gained support 2. Chivalry-the tournament hosted by Count Theobald III of Champagne welcomed knights who were keen to show their worth-decided that they should do so by crusading 3. After the disappointing Third Crusade a response to Islam growth was needed 4. To capture Jerusalem and piety 5. Remission of sins and a solution to a knight's dilemma
|Why did the Fourth Crusade fail?
|It didn't really happen.. 1. Doge Enrico Dandolo diverted the campaign for the gain of the Venetians (to take Zara) 2. Mistake of the envoys (Villehardouin)-the debt they owed led the crusade into an unwanted but inescapable diversion 3. Young Alexius-used the crusaders through lies (connect the two Churches, money and men) to overthrow his uncle, Alexius III, in Constantinople (another diversion) 4. A series of accidents-each accident led to another and the crusade lost its path
|How did Saladin rise to power and become King of Jerusalem?
|1. After going with his uncle to Egypt he ended up defeating their Fatimid Caliphate and running the immensely wealthy and resourceful country 2. Skill and power to take Aleppo (1183) and Mosul (1186) 3. Luck-Death of Nur ad-Din left a minor in charge-easy to defeat 4. Managed to defeat the Franks for a host of reasons, to name a few the nature of crusading (return home) and lack of Western help
|Why did Outremer need the Military Orders?
|1. Very wealthy, needed their resources (could buy and restore castles) 2. Devoted fighters who would fight to the death e.g. turcopoles in the Knights Templar 3. Had powerful allies in the West e.g. Bernard of Clairvaux whose help would be required for success 4. To defend pilgrims going through the Middle east (originally setup for this reason)
|Why did the crusader states collapse?
|1. Nature of crusading-pilgrims who would return home, leaving Outremer unprotected. This showed when Balian of Ibelin tried to defend Jerusalem, Aug. 1087 with just two knights 2. Death of King Amalric in 1174 left a power vacuum (succeeded by Baldwin IV-the leper King) 3. The weakness/death of Baldwin IV led to a succession crisis: civil war between Raymond of Tripoli and Guy; Guy's inability to control Gerard de Ridefort (Springs of Cresson, 1187, and persuasion at Saffuriyah) and Reynald de Chatillon (attack on Muslim caravan in 1186 allowing Saladin to lead a casus belli)-forcing Guy into battle in July 1187 4. Victories at Montgisard in 1177 and La Forbelet in 1182 masked the issues the crusader states were facing 5. This resulted in a lack of help from the West (but also Emperor Andronicus signed a peace treaty with Saladin in 1185 and Saladin's victory at Myriokephalon in 1176) 6. The defeat at the Springs of Cresson in 1187 was embarrassing for Gerard de Ridefort and this made him push for an all out attack at Hattin 7. Set up when Muslim unity was low but Jihad had reunited them 8. Fabian tactics in 1183 at the Battle of Al Fule cost Guy his regency-couldn't do it again so had to fight
|Byzantium and the West (tensions)
|1. Schism in 1054 between the two Churches 2. Behaviour (pillaging) of participants in the People's Crusade led to Byzantium being distrustful 3. Crusaders broke the oath of loyalty (to give Byzantium all captured land e.g. Bohemund at Antioch) 4. Peace treaties with the Muslims e.g. Manuel I and Andronicus (and Alexius III) MORE SPECIFIC: 1. Manuel I had a tense relationship with Roger II of Sicily who was an ally of Louis-didn't want to help him 2. Innocent III threatened Alexius III with the diversion of a crusade to Constantinople 3. Urban II's failure to supply a highly skilled contingent first time around led to distrust 4. The Popes continually used the crusades in an attempt for supremacy over Christendom