|The short term behaviour of the atmosphere
|The long term behaviour of the atmosphere in a specific area
|Name 3 internal factors affecting the climate
|Volcanoes Surface Reflection Changes in Atmospheric Gasses
|Name 3 external factors affecting the climate
|Solar Output Orbital Path Tilt of Axis
|How do volcanoes affect the climate?
|Short Term: Decrease temperature - ash blocks suns rays, and reflect them back into space. Mt. Pinatubo decreased global temperature b 0.4C Long Term: Increased temperature as increase of carbon dioxide in atmosphere
|How does surface reflection affect the climate?
|When there is lots of snow and ice, sunlight is reflected off back into space, causing a reduction in temperature
|How does a change in atmospheric gasses affect the climate?
|An increase of carbon dioxide, methane and any other greenhouse gas will increase the temperature. A reduction of these gasses will reduce the temperature.
|How does the sun's solar output affect the climate?
|The sun has a cycle of 10 years where there will be more or less sunspots - if there are more sunspots, it will be giving out more energy.
|How does the earth's orbital shape affect the climate?
|The path of the earth varies from elliptical to circular every 95,000 years. When it is circular, the temperature is more even, and when it is more elliptical, it is more extreme temperatures.
|How does the axis tilt affect the climate?
|The tilt varies every 41,000 years. The bigger the tilt, the more extreme the summers and winters are.
|What is the greenhouse effect?
|Heat energy from the sun passes through a blanket of Greenhouse gasses. Some of that energy escapes back into space. Energy that doesn't escape is reflected back to earth Greenhouse gasses form a blanket, trapping the heat
|Main causes of climate change
|Burning fossil fuels Methane production
|Why is methane worse than carbon dioxide?
|Methane is 20x more potent than carbon dioxide More is produced naturally
|What is the Kyoto Protocol?
|Dec 1997 181 countries sign it to cut greenhouse gasses by 5.2% of 1990 levels globally. National limits - most had reductions, some allowed increase (Iceland)
|Why sign Kyoto Protocol?
|Next generation's planet Look good to other countries
|Did the Kyoto Protocol work?
|Not really: US never fully agreed Countries like India and China were still developing, so did have targets - now produce a lot of greenhouse gasses
|What is the Bali Roadmap?
|December 2007 180 countries present to agree on initiatives to reach a secure climate future
|Local Responses to Climate Change - Schools
|'Live Simply' campaign 2007 Encourage students to consider choices. Schools introduce energy efficient water and heating systems from renewable sources
|Local Responses to Climate Change - Local Councils
|Since April 2008, £4 million given to councils to cut energy usage. Schemes include free energy saving lightbulbs
|Local Responses to Climate Change - Local Interest Groups
|2005 - Manchester is my Planet Pledge campaign to reduce carbon footprint and be involved with other green projects Over 20,000 members
|Positive Impacts of Climate Change
|Extended growing seasons Can grow crops where previously couldn't Scotland, Scandinavian countries
|Negative Impacts of Climate Change
|Rising sea levels More extreme weather Tropical diseases spreading (e.g. Malaria) Loss of tourism industry (skiing) Crop yield decreasing
|Rising Sea Levels
|Thermal expansion Melting ice caps Threatens over 80 million people If continue at current rate, rise 88 cm by 2100 Loss of land, flooding - lose homes, industry, even islands