GCSE geography natural environment


revision flash cards
Archie Horwood
Flashcards by Archie Horwood, updated more than 1 year ago
Archie Horwood
Created by Archie Horwood over 8 years ago

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Question Answer
GCSE geography revision
Natural environment: Confluence where two rivers meet
Natural environment: Mouth the end of a river where the river meets the sea/ocean or lake
Natural environment: Source where a river starts
Natural environment: Water shed the edge of a rivers drainage basin
Natural environment: Tributary where a small river joins a larger river
Natural environment: Channel the banks and river bed of the river, what the river flows in
Natural environment: Drainage basin an area drained by a river and its tributaries
Natural environment: Hydrology the study of water
Natural environment: Hydrology cycle look in book from Mr Macdonald for hydrological cycle
Natural environment: Hydrological cycle terminology: Infiltration water soaking into the soil from the surface
Natural environment: Hydrological cycle terminology: Through flow Water moving down hill through the soil layers, generally slowly, but flow may concentrate along the line of roots or soil weaknesses which form natural pipes in which the flow will be much faster
Natural environment: Hydrological cycle terminology: Ground water stores Water held below the water table in aquifers ( natural underground reservoirs)
Natural environment: Hydrological cycle terminology: Percolation water moving from the surface layers of soil into deeper layers of soil and rock
Natural environment: Hydrological cycle terminology: Evapotranspiration the combined processes of evaporation and transpiration that result in the loss of water from the leaf. Transpiration is the loss of water from the tiny holes called stomata in the leaf surface. In reality, it is very difficult to calculate the two amounts separately, so they are often grouped together
Natural environment: Hydrological cycle terminology: Interception plants trap some of the precipitation so it may not immediately pass to the ground; some water may flow down the stemmed stemflow. Alternatively, the precipitation may evaporate directly off the leaf surface and never reach the ground
Natural environment: Hydrological cycle terminology: Ground water flow water moving within rocks in the ground
Natural environment: Hydrological cycle terminology: Precipitation water deposited on the ground as a liquid or as a solid, fro example rain, hail, snow or fog
Natural environment: Hydrological cycle terminology: Channel flow water moving downhill within rivers
Natural environment: Hydrological cycle terminology: Overland or surface flow water moving across the surface of the ground which occurs when rain cannot soak quickly enough into the ground due to Tarmac surfaces or hard-baked soil, very heavy rainfall, or when the soil is saturated and infiltration cannot take place (saturated overland flow)
Natural environment: Hydrological cycle terminology: Condensation the process by which water vapour is converted into water
Natural environment: Hydrological cycle terminology: Depression ( or surface) storage storage of water in hollows and holes in the ground surface from puddles
Natural environment: Hydrological cycle terminology: Evaporation Water changing from its liquid form to a gas (water vapour) and returning to the atmosphere
Natural environment: Hydrological cycle
natural environment weathering the breakdown of rock in situ (this means at that place
natural environment erosion the wearing away of of the land by the action of rivers, ice, wind and sea
natural environment weathering process 1 of 4 frost shatteing water gets in to crack > water freezes and expands > crack opens up > rock falls to pieces
natural environment weathering process 2 of 4 onion-skin weathering rock is heated by the sun and expands > rock cools down and contracts > rock weakened > surface layers peel
natural environment weathering process 3 of 4 biological weathering animal digs under rock and into cracks > rocks undercut and cracks widen > rock loosens and breaks up > rocks collapse and fall apart
natural environment weathering process 4 of 4 chemical weathering rain water contains weak acid > acid attacks rock > rock dissolved or weakened > rock worn away or broken up
natural environment erosion processes 1 of 4 Abrasion/Corrosion river picks up rocks that it rubs against the beds and banks (sandpapering)
natural environment erosion processes 2 of 4 Attrition rocks carried in the river smooth as they crash into each other
natural environment erosion processes 3 of 4 Corrosion Rocks dissolve in water acid
natural environment erosion processes 4 of 4 Hydraulic action the force of the water crashes into the beds and banks, breaking them up
natural environment transportation processes 1 of 4 saltation heavier material is bounced along the bed
natural environment transportation processes 2 of 4 solution dissolved rock is carried invisibly
natural environment transportation processes 3 of 4 suspension light material is carried in the flow
natural environment transportation processes 4 of 4 traction heavy material is rolled along the bed
natural environment soil creep - slow downhill movement - gravity pulls water in the soil downhill - soil particles move within the water - heavy rain speed up the process - ripples or teracettes are left
natural environment slumping - common on rivers - large area of land moves down slope - saturated rocks become heavy - they can collapse under the weight
natural environment: Long profile a side view of the river (concave)
natural environment: long profile picture
natural environment: long profile picture
natural environment: upper course vertical erosion, steep gradient, V-shaped valley, narrow river channel, shallow river, slow flowing (because of friction), small discharge, large rocks
natural environment: middle course Lateral erosion, medium gradient, U-shaped valley, wider river channel, deeper river channel, faster flowing, more discharge, smaller material
natural environment: lower course mostly deposition, gentle gradient, very broad valley, widest river channel, deepest river channel, fastest flowing, large discharge, silt and suspended load
natural environment: Bradshaw's model of downstream charges in a river
natural environment: river landforms V-shaped valley
natural environment: river land forms waterfalls
natural environment: river landforms meanders
natural environment: river landforms ox bow lakes
Natural environment: river land forms river cliffs
natural environment river landforms interlocking spurs Vertical erosion is most important near the source. The river cuts down into the bed through hydraulic action, attrition and corrosion. slope movement leads to V-shaped valleys forming. The ridges of land left around which the river runs are called Interlocking spurs.
natural environment river landforms waterfalls These form where hard and soft rocks are found together, usually in the upper stages of the river. When hard rock is above softer rock erosion is quicker below (by hydraulic action in particular) The hard rock is undercut, is unsupported and collapse. This leaves a plunge pool and a steep sided gorge.
natural environment river landoforms meanders In the middle stages of the river it has more energy to erode laterally. The fastest flow is on to the outside of the bend causing erosion by mainly hydraulic action. The slower flow is found in the inside of the bend where deposition takes place. these bands can migrate over time leading to wide flat valleys
natural environment river landforms river cliffs These occur on river banks in the middle stages of the middle/lower stages of the river. The fastest flow is of a meander hits the bank and breaks off material. This is caused by hydraulic action. Where the side collapses and is eroded to a steep bank.
natural environment river landforms Ox bow lakes When meanders bend so much that their necks become narrow. Erosion on both sides of the neck narrows the gap until they touch. Floods allow the remaining water to break through the neck and allows the river to travel in a straight line. These features are left behind as deposition blocks it off and the water in the lake will dry up.
natural environment river landforms flood plains flat land found either side of the river. Migrating meanders can push back or erode valley sides to create a wide flat valley. Flooding of the river can deposit silt/alluvium that flattens the landscape by covering it. On either side of the river there are small hills called bluffs.
natural environment river landforms leeves They are natural banks found on either side of a river in the floodplain. When a river floods it deposits material. The largest material is dropped first because its heaviest and the smaller material is carried away.
natural environment flooding
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