As the river moves material
it comes into contact with the
wetted perimeter and wears
As material moves by the river carry it - it hits other
material and it gradually becomes rounder and
Acids in the river water dissolves soluble
parts/elements of the river banks.
The sheer force and pressure of the river water moves
material and dislodges it from the wetted perimeter.
Slip off slopes
The inside bend of a meander.
Outside bend: river cliff Inside bend: slip off
slope. The river has less energy on the inside
of the bend and starts to deposit material.
Ox bow lakes
Outside of meander is thalweg, inside
is a slip off slope. - Increased erosion
of meander neck - River flows in
meander and straight through new
channel (very straight) - drying up ox
bow lake [water, lots of vegetation
will become land]. - Will eventually
start to meander again, rivers are not
Need low energy environment and
river material not wasted away
Rolling of large
materials along the river
Needs lots of energy
Sand sized particles hop
along river bottom
Silt and clay particles are carried
suspended in the water.
Some minerals are
dissolved in the river.
Need hard rock
and soft rock
under a river.
formed when the soft
rock erodes fastest.
Soft rock eroding more creates
plunge pool and overhang forming
time creating a
V shaped valleys
Water always runs to the
lowest point and collects.
This forms a channel
Over time it erodes downwards cheating a V shape
Does not have enough
energy to erode all the
slopes so it moves