Year 11 GCSE Geography Mind Map on Rivers GCSE WJEC, created by Eleanor Monk on 10/02/2015.
Eleanor Monk
Mind Map by Eleanor Monk, updated more than 1 year ago
Eleanor Monk
Created by Eleanor Monk about 9 years ago

Resource summary

  1. Erosional river processes
    1. Abrasion
      1. As the river moves material it comes into contact with the wetted perimeter and wears it away
      2. Attrition
        1. As material moves by the river carry it - it hits other material and it gradually becomes rounder and smaller.
        2. Solution
          1. Acids in the river water dissolves soluble parts/elements of the river banks.
          2. Hydrochloric Action
            1. The sheer force and pressure of the river water moves material and dislodges it from the wetted perimeter.
          3. Depositional Landforms
            1. Slip off slopes
              1. The inside bend of a meander.
              2. Meanders
                1. Outside bend: river cliff Inside bend: slip off slope. The river has less energy on the inside of the bend and starts to deposit material.
                2. Ox bow lakes
                  1. Outside of meander is thalweg, inside is a slip off slope. - Increased erosion of meander neck - River flows in meander and straight through new channel (very straight) - drying up ox bow lake [water, lots of vegetation will become land]. - Will eventually start to meander again, rivers are not naturally straight.
                  2. Deltas
                    1. Need low energy environment and river material not wasted away
                      1. Can happen at sea/ocean, lake or other rivers
                  3. Transportation Techniques
                    1. Traction
                      1. Rolling of large materials along the river bottom
                        1. Needs lots of energy
                      2. Saltation
                        1. Sand sized particles hop along river bottom
                        2. Suspention
                          1. Silt and clay particles are carried suspended in the water.
                          2. Solution
                            1. Some minerals are dissolved in the river.
                          3. Erosional Landforms
                            1. Waterfalls
                              1. Need hard rock and soft rock under a river.
                                1. Waterfalls are formed when the soft rock erodes fastest.
                                  1. Soft rock eroding more creates plunge pool and overhang forming a waterfall.
                                    1. Overhang collapses into plunge pool eventually over time creating a gorge.
                              2. V shaped valleys
                                1. Water always runs to the lowest point and collects.
                                  1. This forms a channel
                                    1. Over time it erodes downwards cheating a V shape
                                      1. Does not have enough energy to erode all the slopes so it moves around them
                                2. Interlocking spurs
                                  1. *see V shaped valleys*
                                3. Tourism at Niagara Falls
                                  1. YORK floods
                                    1. 2000
                                      1. 2012
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