The Civil Rights Movements 1950s:There were 3 major events:- Brown V. Topeka Board of Education 1954- Rosa Parks and The Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955-56-Little Rock Central High School 1957
Brown V. Topeka Board of Education:What Happened?- This event happened in 1955, when oliver Brown's daughter (Black American) had to walk 21 blocks to attend her all black school, when there was a better all white school only 7 blocks aways.- NAACP decided to act against this.-They asked a number of parents to try and register their children to the nearest school.- They used the Brown family as their test case in the District Court.- The Court ruled in favour of schools using the old law 'Separate but equal'. Although it agreed that black American Children might be better in mixed school, but claimed that the schools were of 'equal quality' and so did not do anything.-However, by the 17th of May 1954 the US supreme court ruled the end of segregation in schools.
Achievements:- Its main achievement was ending segregation in schools which was the NAACP's aim. This was seen as an improvement to many.- By January 1956 all elementary schools in Topeka were organised by area rather than by colour of skin. This was a victory for the Civil Rights Movement.
Failures:- Although it was seen as achievement and improvement, it also came with failures.- One of these failures was the huge problems it led to in the south.- In 1955 membership if the Ku Klux Klan rose dramatically
Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955:What happened?- 1st December 1955, a female black american named Rosa Parks was arrested for breaking the bus segregation law.- This was not the first time that this had happened.- She had broke the law as the bus had become full and she was asked to give up her seat so a white person could sit down and take her place.- She refused and the bus driver immediately stopped and had her arrested.- She was later convicted, fined and sacked from her job.-Rosa from there then went to the NAACP and became a test case.- There was then a one day Bus Boycott which ended up turning into a longer boycott. Black Americans either had to walk to work or were carpooled.- The Bus Boycott dragged on for nearly 12 months and by the end of it the US Supreme Court made bus segregation illegal.
Achievements:-The main achievement was that bus segregation was now made illegal.- Another achievement was the courage of the Black Americans and how they kept the bus boycott going for 12 months. Even with all the harsh conditions.-Segregation was shortly after made illegal as a whole.- The bus boycott was one of the civil right first victories.- Rosa Parks continued to fight for her rights and founded an institute for self development which held summer schools called 'Pathways to freedom'- She was awarded the Presidential medal of Freedom.
Failures:- Rosa Parks getting arrested and getting sacked from her job.- Whites also started to retaliate against the boycott.- Martin Luther King who used his car to carpool was arrested for for speeding along with other carpool drivers and those waiting for a lift.- Martin's house was even bombed.- Rosa Parks and Martin Luther king's lives became extremely difficult as they had been targeted by racists and even had to move homes.
Little Rock Central High School:What happened:- 1954, it was announced that segregation in schools was illegal.-Many States in the south such as Arkansas, did little to desegregate schools.- A local newspaper began to campaign to start desegregation. The school Board and City's Mayor both agreed that taken efforts should be made.- Arkansas Governor didn't agree and 9 students had been registered in Little Rock Central High School but the Governor called out the national guards in Arkansa to stop the black students from attending school.- The first day of school the black students did not show up but on the second day they were not allowed into the school building as they were stopped by the National Guards.- For 18 days they waited to see what would happen. Even the President tried to to persuade the State Governor to obey the ruling but he refused.- On 23rd September the 9 students were able to get into school. They had to be smuggled in. When the whites heard about this they started to attack random Black Americans on the street.- 1100 paratroopers of the First Airborne Division had to escort the students into school until November.- Out of 9 students only 1 had graduated due to the impossible conditions.
Achievements:- Little Rock High school reopened as a desegregated school in 1960.- I also think the courage of the 9 students who actually ended up attending the school was an achievement as they were faced with numerous difficulties.- The fact that one of the students actually graduated makes it an achievement as it shows they were improving and that they had a lot of courage.- This event helped show America the problem that they had which was racism do this opened the eyes to many americans that things had to change. This event was broadcasted on TV in America so it shocked many people the problem they were facing.
Failures:- An increase in the membership of the Ku Klux Klan-The Governor was seen as a hero to many was disappointing as he was against the Civil Rights.-Out of the 9 students 4 of their parents had lost their jobs due to this incident.- Although it was an achievement is was also disappointing how only 1 student out of the 9 graduated, as the other students couldn't cop with the harsh conditions.- I believe another failure was the hassle Arkansa went through not to allow these students attend as it was shocking the measures they took.