|What is Social Cognition?
|How we interpret, analyse, remember and use information to make judgement about others in social situations.
|What is Person Perception?
|The mental process that is used to form impressions and draw conclusions about the personal characteristics of other people. the Primary Impressions are usually based on physical appearance and non-verbal communications such as eye contact and facial expressions.
|What is the Halo Effect?
|a cognitive bias where the impression we form about one quality of a person influences our beliefs and expectations about that persons other qualities. Example: if a person is good looking they will have a good personality
|What is attribution?
|The process by which people explain the causes of their own and other peoples behaviors.
|What are the two types of Attribution?
|PERSONAL ATTRIBUTION: an explanation based on the characteristics of the person, such as personality, attitude etc. SITUATIONAL ATTRIBUTION: an explanation based on the factors that are external to the person involved. such as other peoples actions, environment, the actual task etc.
|What is an Attitude?
|An evaluation a person makes about an object, person, group, movement or issue. Explained through the Tricomponent model of Attitudes.
|What are the elements the Tricomponent Model of Attitudes made of?
|AFFECTIVE - feelings BEHAVIORAL - actions COGNITIVE - beliefs (ABC, FAB) All elements must be present for an attitude to have been formed. HOWEVER, behavior can be inconsistent with the cognitive and affective components. e.g. disliking football but attending a game because a friend is playing.
|What is the affective section of Tricomponent Model of Attitudes referring to?
|Refers to the emotional response an individual has towards an object, person, group or issue. based on a judgement that produces positive, negative or neutral response.
|What is the behavioral section of Tricomponent Model of Attitudes referring to?
|The actions that are taken or the way that the attitude is expressed.
|What is the Cognitive section of Tricomponent Model of Attitudes referring to?
|Refers to the beliefs that we have about an object, person, issue or group.
|What is the connection between behavior and attitude?
|Attitude is a poor predictor of behavior. Attitudes and behaviors maybe consistent if: -how strong the attitude is -how easily the attitude is formed' -the present situation -belief that we can perform the belief
|What four factors can influence attitude formation?
|EXPOSURE/REPEATED EXPOSURE CLASSICAL CONDITIONING - repeated association of two different stimuli e.g ads. OPERANT CONDITIONING -behavior based on the assumption that it will be repeated if linked to a reward or punishment SOCIAL LEARNING - adopted attitudes when someone observes another person in order to guide their future thoughts, feelings and behaviors. (Role modeling)
|What is a Stereotype?
|A collection of beliefs that we have about the people who belong to a certain group, regardless of individual differences among members of that group. e.g. blondes are dumb.
|What is an ingroup?
|Any group that a person belongs to or identifies with is an ingroup. e.g. friendship groups, family, religion, sex etc.
|What is an outgroup?
|Anyone that a person does not belong to or identify with.
|What is Prejudice?
|Holding a negative attitude towards the members of a group based solely on their membership of that group. e.g. You are blonde, therefore you are dumb.
|What are the two types of Prejudice?
|OLD FASHIONED PREJUDICE: when someone is treated less favorably then another person in a similar circumstance INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION: Occur when a requirement, condition or practice that appears fair but actually discriminated against someone. e.g not allowing head coverings for safety purposes discriminates against certain regions.
|What is Social Influence?
|The effects of the presence or actions of others, either real or imagined, on the way people think, feel and behave.
|What is a group?
|Any collection of people of two or more people who interact with and influence one another and who share a common goal. The number of people is not important but they must be influencing and interacting in order to reach a common goal.
|What is a collective or aggregate?
|A gathering of people who have minimal direct contact. e.g. spectators at a sports game.
|What is Status and what does it determine?
|The importance of an individuals position in a group, as perceived by members of that group. It determines the expectations that individuals have of another group members behavior, how group members relate to each other and the amount of power an individual has in a group.
|What is Power?
|Refers to an individuals (or groups) ability to control or influence the thoughts, feelings or behaviors of another person or group.
|What are the six types of power?
|REWARD -ability to give positive consequences or remove negative consequences to a behavior. e.g. employer, parent. COERCIVE - ability to dive negative consequences or remove positive consequences to a behavior. e.g. employer, parents LEGITIMATE - a status that give them the right to exercise power over others with less authority. REFERENT - individuals identify with or want to be like or be liked by this person. e.g older sibling, celebrity EXPERT - having special knowledge and skills that are desirable or needed. e.g. maths expert INFORMATIONAL - having the resources or information that is useful and not available elsewhere. e.g. librariam
|What is a Role?
|The behavior adopted by an individual or assigned to them that influences the way that they act in different situations. Can be temporary (student, captain of a sports team) or permanent (female, brother) Role expectations has a strong influence on how that person acts.
|What was the Stanford Prison Experiment?
|Was carried by Zimbardo in 1972 to discover the psychological effects of being a prisoner or guard so he set up a mock prison with mock guards an prisoners.
|What is Obedience?
|Following the commands of someone in authority or the rules or laws of society
|What are the factors that affect obedience?
|SOCIAL PROXIMITY - the closeness between two or more people LEGITIMACY OF AUTHORITY - more likely to follow commands if the figure is seen to have legitimate authority. GROUP PRESSURE - more likely to follow commands if there is little or no group support for resisting the authority figure.
|What is conformity?
|The tenancy to adjust ones thoughts, feelings or behaviors in ways that are in agreement with that of a particular group or individual or with social norms. E.G. someone does something that they would not normally do, to go along with the group.
|What five factors affect conformity?
|SIZE OF GROUP - Conformity increases with group size up to four, then remains the same. UNANIMITY -Complete agreement between all members of the group is like to encourage the last person to also agree INFORMATIONAL INFLUENCE - motivated to make a choice on the basis of information provided to you, because you want to be right. NORMATIVE INFLUENCE - when response is leaded by social norms CULTURE
|What is Social Loafing?
|the tenancy to make less of an effort when involved in a group activity then when working alone. Based on the belief that conforming will not make a huge impact on the result. Conforms but with less effort. E.G. co-workers.
|What is Social behavior?
|Any behavior involving interaction between two or more people.
|What is Social relations?
|Any relationship between two or more individuals
|What is a Anti-Social behavior?
|Any behavior that is disruptive or harmful to the well being or property of another person to the functioning of a group
|What is a Pro-Social behavior?
|Any behavior intended to help or benefit another person group or society.
|How do we determine if we will assist in a situation or not?
|SITUATIONAL FACTORS: 1. Notice the situation - you notice that something is wrong or unusual. Less likely if you are in a group. 2. Interpret the situation - you must believe that a 'helping' response is required. 3. Take responsibility for helping - for you to believe that it is your responsibility to assist the person
|What is the Bystander effect?
|The tenancy for individuals to be less likely to help another person in need when other bystanders are present or believed to be present, as compared to when they are alone.
|What are social Norms and the types?
|Standards or rules about what people should and should not do in certain situations. 1. RECIPROCITY NORMS - we should help others who help us. Reciprocate. 2. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY NORM - we should help someone who needs help. we may not be as influenced by this if we believe that the person brought upon themselves.
|What personal factors influence our willingness to help?
|EMPATHY - if we empathize we are more likely to help MOOD - more likely to help if we are in a good mood. can also help if in a bad mood if that bad mood is guilt. COMPETENCE - our perceived ability to actually help. if we believe that we can reduce a persons pain we assist immediately.
|What are social influences and the two main types that affect willingness to help?
|Effects of the presence or actions of others, either real or imagined, an the way we think feel or behave. DIFFUSION OF RESPONSIBILITY - is when the responsibility to help is spread among a group, each person feels less responsible if they were alone. AUDIENCE INHIBITION - is when we are worried that we will embarrass ourselves or feeling foolish in front of others.
|What is a Cost-Benefit analysis?
|When an individual weighs up the personal or social cost of helping against the benefits of helping. If the cost is interpreted to be higher then the cost, we will be less likely to help.
|What is Altruism?
|The desire to help others for their sake without seeking personal gain or reward. Genuine altruism places another's well being ahead of yours. E.G. saving someone from a burning building.
|What is bullying?
|Aggressive behavior that involves the inappropriate use of power by one or more persons over another less powerful group or persons and is generally repeated over time.
|What are the types of bullying?
|DIRECT PHYSICAL BULLYING - hitting, punching, spitting. DIRECT VERBAL BULLYING - name calling, insults, verbal abuse INDIRECT BULLYING - carried out behind the victims back, intended to cause humiliation, (spreading rumors, nasty jokes, mimicking, exclusion, cyber bullying, defamation.)