Investigating Intelligence - chapter 1 Keywords


BSc DE100 Investigating Psychology (Investigating Intelligence) Flashcards on Investigating Intelligence - chapter 1, created by Anneliese Shaw on 14/08/2016.
Anneliese Shaw
Flashcards by Anneliese Shaw, updated more than 1 year ago
Anneliese Shaw
Created by Anneliese Shaw over 6 years ago

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Question Answer
Individual differences Any characteristics that are susceptible to variation between individuals; for example, personality or intelligence.
Test norms Benchmarks used to assess an individual's performance on intelligence tests. They offer insight into how a person's test score compares with the scores of other test takers from the same population.
Intelligence quotient (IQ) A score on an intelligence test which indicates how a person's intellectual ability compares to the general population.
Psychometrics A field of study in psychology concerned with psychological measurement of things like attitudes, personality traits, mood or intelligence.
Crystallised intelligence The ability to apply acquired skills, knowledge and experience to novel situations.
g, or general intelligence The factor believed to underpin performance on different tasks in an intelligence test.
Normal distribution The assumption that characteristics which vary between people will be distributed across the population in such a way that values at or close to the average will be more frequent than extreme ones.
Personality A person's stable and enduring traits and characteristics (e.g. whether they are outgoing, assertive, perceptive or emotional) which lead them to behave in a steady way over time.
Battery of tests A series of tests aimed at measuring the same thing, such as intelligence.
Validity The extent to which a test measures what it has been designed to measure.
Correlation A measure of an association between two events or things. In the case of an intelligence test, this means that those who performwellonone task will also do well on another.
Test standardisation The process of establishing test norms by administering the test to a large sample of the population for which the test is intended.
Craniometry The study of people's intellectual abilities based on the shape and size of their head.
Innate Relating to a behaviour, ability, disposition or characteristic that is present from birth rather than being acquired through experience.
Lewis Terman''s IQ Formula (Mental age / chronological age) x 100
Neurology The scientificstudy of the brain and the nervous system.
Confirmatory bias When a scientist's expectations unconsciously influence the outcome of their research. This occurs because of the tendency to pay most attention to those features of a phenomenon that appear to confirm prior expectations.
Working memory The kind of memory that is used for temporarily storing and managing information required to carry out a task.
Scale A term which, in the context of intelligence research, is often used instead of the word 'test'. In psychology, the word 'scale' refers to any set of questionnaire items or tasks which combine to measure a bigger construct that cannot be measured directly, such as intelligence or personality
Fluid intelligence The ability to think logically and solve problems, which is independent of acquired knowledge or experience
Theory A set of propositions about a psychological phenomenon (e.g. intelligence) which formsthe basisofan explanation.
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