|local councils were told to provide free school meals for poor children.
|school medical examinations were ordered for all children
|Old-age pensions were introduced.
|National Insurance (free medical treatment for workers who fell ill) was introduced.
|the first Public Health Act caused the setting up of a Board of Health, and gave towns the right to appoint a Medical Officer of Health.
|vaccination against smallpox was made compulsory.
|Improvements in hospital hygiene were introduced (thanks in large part to Florence Nightingale).
|A Public Health Act enforced laws about slum clearance, provision of sewers and clean water, and the removal of nuisances.