Chapter 1 Vocab Terms


Language and Dialect Variation
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Created by lbtdance about 8 years ago

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Explain the difference between 'Language' and 'Variety' Language: means a unitary system of communication that subsumes a number of mutually intelligible varieties. Dialect: distinguishable variety used in a particular region by a particular socioeconomic group or an ethnic group
Accent subordinate variety of a language differing principally in phonology (pronunciation)
Style "formal vs. informal"
Register associated with occupational groups
Mutual Intelligibility A situation in which two or more speakers of a language (or of closely related languages) can understand each other.
Example of sociopolitical factors on language-dialect differentiation Ethnic conflicts in the Balkans in the 1990's. Before, serbo-croatian was viewed by its speakers as a single language containing several dialects. After, people spoke of "Serbian" and "Croatian" as two separate, distinct languages.
Give two examples of attitudes toward language varieties 1. converging to another variety shows "positive attitude". Opposite is true with divergence 2. Hindi-Urdu: going divide between India and Pakistan, differences are becoming more and more magnified
Society Any group of people who are drawn together for a certain purpose or purposes
Plurilingual many speakers may use more than one language
Code the system of communication employed by two or more people when communicating to each other in speech
Internal Variation Each language exists in a number of varieties and is, in one sense, the sum of those varieties
Variety A set of linguistic items with similar distribution (ex: Canadian English, London English, the English of Football Commentators)
What constitutes a variety? any body of human speech patterns which are sufficiently homogenous to be analyzed
Give an example of Internal Variation Oxford English
Hudson and Ferguson agree in defining "Variety" in terms of a specific set of "linguistic items" (sounds, words, grammar, etc.) which we can uniquely associate with some external factor. Give some examples of external factors: Geographic are, regional, social group, ethnic background
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