features of conversation - discourse features


a level english language (analysing spoken language) Mind Map on features of conversation - discourse features, created by molls shaw on 27/11/2015.
molls shaw
Mind Map by molls shaw, updated more than 1 year ago
molls shaw
Created by molls shaw about 8 years ago

Resource summary

features of conversation - discourse features
  1. adjacency pairs
    1. two utterances where the first utterance gets an expected response (eg greeting/greeting, question/answer). you expect a certain response
    2. back channeling
      1. non-verbal utterance to show attention or agreement eg: mmm. yeah, ok
      2. deictic expressions
        1. pointers that refer the listener backwards, forwards, or outside a text. pointing words in a perceptual, temporal or spatial dimension. eg words like 'this' 'that' 'here' 'there'
        2. discourse markers
          1. signal shift in conversation and topic areas. can also introduce a counter agrument eg ok, right, so, but
          2. discourse pragmatic markers
            1. phrases which support interaction but do not generally add any specific semantic meaning to the message. eg: you know, i mean, you see, well, yeah, like, innit
            2. ellipsis
              1. omission of words for economical purposes, as appropriate to informal contexts or to avoid awkward repitition eg: just seen jack (elipsis: i've); tonight 8pm (ellipsis: i'll meet you at...)
              2. false starts/repairs
                1. a speaker will start to speak, pause then recommence (it began er arsenal kicked off the second half (false start -it began). a repair returns to correct a previously stated phrase or sentence (eg he, sorry she broke the vase (repair she from he)
                2. fillers
                  1. non-verbal sounds, can act like pauses either naturally or to give a speaker thinking time. may also signal speaker uncertainty
                  2. hedging
                    1. a strategy used to avoid being direct: eg kind of, sort of, maybe, perhaps, possibly and modal verbs such as will, could, might
                    2. non-fluency features
                      1. non-verbal occurrences, eg micro pauses, hesitations and repetitions that occur in spontaneous speech
                      2. prosodics
                        1. features such as tone of voice, volume, pitch etc which affect how a message is received
                        2. skip connectors
                          1. return to a previous topic of conversation, essentially a type of discourse marker eg anyway, coming back to our original discussion
                          2. tag questions
                            1. a question converted from a statement by an appended interrogative formula. eg: you did really well, didnt you? it was tomorrow, wasnt it?
                            2. vague expressions
                              1. similar to hedging, deliberately non-committal expression in informal contexts eg, anything, something, thing
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