GOFFMAN: FACE THEORYConversation is a co-operative activity, we generally accept the face that others offer to us. If something is said or done that challenges or rejects another's face, this is called a face threatening act. Face-work often has the aim of maintaining the status of participants.People of lower status tend to be more attentive to the face needs of those in a higher status position. This is shown by the use of language which is respectful and deferential.
POLITENESS: Using appropriate forms of address. speaking to others in a way which is appropriate to the social relationship you have with them. Speaking with formality fitting with the occasion. Understanding the conventions if language in particular situations. understanding the conventions of turn taking.
EXPRESSIVEExpresses the speakers feelings or emotions.
PHATICThese help to maintain social relationships.
DIRECTIVEWhen the speaker wants another person to do something.
TRANSACTIONALAll about getting something done or achieved.
INTERACTIONALMain focus is on social relationships between the speakers - such as a casual chat between friends.
DISCOURSETRANSACTIONAL or INTERACTIONAL
SPEECH ACT THEORYLanguage performs communicative acts between speakers and listeners.Performative utterances = illocutionary speech: representative directive commissive expressive declarative
CONVERSATION ANALYSISThe way society affects spoken interaction - the rules of everyday conversation.
GRAMMAR:The relationship between the words in an utterance. contracted verbs form active rather than passive verbs. frequent use of imperatives and interrogatives Noun Phrases Simple and usually short clauses. Use 'and' as a continuation marker.
LEXIS:Is determined by the context, the purpose of the talk and the people that are talking. These factors will affect the register and semantic field. Tendency to use simpler and more generalised vocabulary. Use of vague language such as fillers or hedging devices. Use of terms of address Frequent use of phatic language.
DISCOURSE FEATURES:Structural or interactive features of talk which reflect the nature of the spoken exchange. Use of discourse markers Repetition back channel
NON FLUENCY FEATURES:How spoken communication is managed. Hesitations False starts repetitions fillers and hedging overlaps interruptions repair
Face Theory & Politeness Principle
Functions of Speech
The Structures and Functions of Speech
Characteristic features of spontaneous speech