|What are the two types of long term memory? E = Tulving 1972 I = Cohen & Squire 1980
|What is episodic memory and which part of long term memory is it associated with?
|Episodic memory is part of explicit long term memory. It is the storage and retrieval of specific events at a given time or place, for example your first day at school
|What is semantic memory and which part of long term memory is it associated with?
|Semantic memory is associated with explicit memory. It is the storage and retrieval of general knowledge/ facts without any connection to a time or place of learning. For example knowing that London is the capital
|What is procedural memory and what part of long term memory is it associated with?
|Procedural memory is associated with implicit memory. It is the storage and retrieval of HOW to do things (motor and cognitive skills). For example knowing how to ride a bike.
|Are episodic and semantic memories entirely separate?
|No, many daily tasks require both episodic and semantic information. Also both episodic and semantic memories can be affected by those with Anterograde amnesia, which supports the idea the two may not be completely independent ( King et al 2004)
|Which study shows the distinction between semantic and episodic memory?
|Tulving 1989, injected participants with radioactive gold and asked them to think about childhood experiences whilst measuring blood flow. Found high activation in frontal cortex when thinking about childhood experiences. Found high activation in posterior cortex when thinking about historical facts.
|Give evidence for distinction between declarative and procedural memory...
|Cohen & Squire 1980 argued amnesic patients have difficulty retaining declarative information after onset. However procedural memory appears to be unaffected. They can retrieve previous skills and learn new ones. However, during visual search tasks which require binding information amnesic patients do not perform as well as controls (Chun & Phelps 1999). They only showed some implicit learning.
|What is autobiographical memory?
|Events of personal relevance Expands over lifetime Deals with complex memories selected from collection of personal experiences
|What is the lifespan retrieval curve?
|What is repression?
|Freudian idea that forgetting happens for a reason We consciously choose which memories to forget Thoughts and memories that are painful are forced out of consciousness
|Evaluate the idea of repression...
|+ event specific amnesia (criminals unable to recall committing crimes) + recovered memories (sexual abuse in childhood) - Difficult to validate -Impossible to distinguish between an inability and an unwillingness to recall
|What is the reminiscence bump?
|Bump peaks around 20 years old. COnway et al 2000, believes it reflects preferential retention of events. During those years memories are more focused on significant life choices. Social identity, relationships, life goals and career choice all play a role.
|What is reconstructive memory?
|Individual will draw on past experiences as well as current knowledge to reconstruct the memory, SCHEMAS. Bartlett 1932 - states people only remember a few striking details and during recall they reconstruct the missing info in accordance with their own expectations.
|What are flash bulb memories?
|Detailed memories of the circumstances under which one first learned of a surprising, consequential, emotionally involving event (Brown & Kulik 1977)
|Supporting evidence for flash bulb memories?
|+ Brown & Kulik 1977, 90% of people recounted FM that were relevant to personal horrifying events. + Conway et al 2008 found FM to be more detailed and accurate than ordinary memories. Half of 678 american ppts had perfect FM after 911. 75% near perfect recall a year later. Those with consistent FM experienced more anxiety in response to event.
|Evidence that flash bulb memories may be constructed in first few days of event (rather than immediately)?
|+ Winningham et al 2000, studied recall of OJ Simpson verdict, and found that memories changed over first few days after hearing then became constant. +Talarico & Rubin 2003, found inconsistencies over time (memory changed the day after 911 event)
|What was the study by McCloskey et al 1988 into flash bulb memories?
|Interviewed participants shortly after the challenger disaster, and again 9 months later. Found that accounts had changed over time. Many had forgotten elements and some recollections were wildly inaccurate. suggest FM no more reliable than normal memories
|Are flashbulb memories real?
|+ Cahill & McGaugh 1998 argue FM occur because of hormonal releases during times of high emotion. An adaptive response to make memories more vivid and thus easier to recall. - Neisser 1982, argues FM are more vivid because they are rehearsed more and thus transfer to LTM
|The working memory model by Baddeley and Hitch (1974) claim STM is composed of 4 components...what are they?
|What is the phonological store and where is it found? (Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
|Found in phonological loop. It holds info in speech based form for 1-2 secs. Spoken words enter the store directly but written words must first be converted into articulatory (spoken) code before they can enter the store. (Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
|What is the phonological loop and what is it comprised of? (Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
|The phonological loop deals with spoken and written material. It has two parts - the phonological store and the articulatory control process (Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
|What is the articulatory control process and where is it found? (Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
|The articulatory control process acts like an inner voice rehearsing info from the phonological store. It circulates info round like a tape loop. Found in the phonological loop (Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
|What is the visuo-spatial sketch pad? (Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
|- Deals with visual and spatial information. - Obtained from either immediate environment or retrieved from LTM.
|What is the central executive? (Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
|The CE is the key component which controls attentional processes rather than acting as a memory store. It gives priority to particular activities. Responsible for integrating info from PL and VSSP and drawing on info held in LTM, The CE has a limited capacity.
|What is the episodic buffer? Baddeley 2000
|Added later, previously no component in WMM could combine several kinds of info -Limited capacity - general store which integrates info from PL, VSSP and LTM into a unitary multi dimensional representation
|Supporting evidence for working memory model by Baddeley and hitch (1974)? (interference task)
|Interference tasks - Ppts were asked to do two tasks simultaneously which used the same system. e.g saying 'the,the,the' whilst silently reading something. Both tasks used PL which has a limited capacity and therefore cannot cope with both tasks. Supports WM idea of stores
|Supporting evidence for working memory model by Baddeley and hitch (1974)? (Dual task)
|Robbins et al 1996 investigated effects of secondary tasks on quality of chess-move selection in stronger and weaker players. Found that selecting chess moves involved CE and VSSP and the effects of the secondary tasks were the same on both players indicating they both use WM the same way.
|Supporting evidence for working memory model by Baddeley and hitch (1974)? (case study)
|K.F (Shallice & Warrington 1970) performed very poorly on verbal digit span task, yet did very well on visual memory task. Which shows that there are separate STM components for visual VSSP and verbal info (PL)
|What are the strengths of the Working Memory Model?
|+ Supporting evidence - interference and dual tasks + Explain some deficits in MSM like why performance can vary across various tasks + Applies to real life tasks + Concerned with active processing and transient storage
|What are the weaknesses of the Working Memory Model?
|- Role of CE not clear - Capacity of CE difficult to measure - Not a complete model of memory ignores sensory and LTM -Lacks detail on how episodic buffer interacts with other components - Liberman (1980) argues blind people have a brilliant VSSP despite never having visual info
|What criticism from the Multi store model of memory does the levels of processing model address?
|-Overemphasis on rehearsal in MSM as a process to transfer info from STM to LTM - Focuses on the memory stores and structures rather than the actual cognitive processes involved in memory.
|Who proposed the Levels of Processing Model and what is the general idea?
|-Proposed by Craik & Lockhart 1972 -The strength of a memory trace is determined by how the original info was processed
|What does the strength of the trace depend on in the levels of processing model?
|-Attention paid to stimulus -Depth of processing carried out -Connections with existing knowledge
|What are the 3 types of processing in the Levels of processing model?
|1. Structural = SHALLOW - encode physical quality, is it in capital letters? 2. Phonemic = INTERMEDIATE - encode sound of the word, does it rhyme? 3. Semantic = DEEP - encode the meaning of the word and relate it to similar words with similar meanings
|Research support for the levels of processing model?
|+ Craik & Tulving 1975 recognition test - highest recognition for stimuli processed semantically then phonologically then structurally. + Elias & Perfetti 1973 - significantly higher recall for words processed semantically
|Strengths of Levels of processing model?
|+ Demonstrates perception, attention and memory are all closely related + Research support - Craik & Tulving 1975, Elias & perfetti 1973 +Explains why we remember some info longer than others + Real life application - revision techniques +Focus of research on LTM shifted as a result of encoding being recognised as complex
|Weaknesses of Levels of Processing model?
|- Unclear whether recall is due to time taken to process, the amount of effort required or the level of processing - Too simplistic only focuses on processes and ignores structure - Depth is poorly defined - Doesn't explain why deeper processing results in better memories
|Name 4 revision techniques and 4 ways you can help recall...
|1. Chunking 2. Mnemonic devices 3. Methods of Loci 4. Test yourself Depth - make connections Spread - use different techniques Elaboration - mental effort Distinctiveness - make it your own
|What are the 3 stages of memory?
|At what stage can memory fail?
|ANY! ( ENCODING, STORAGE, RETRIEVAL)
|Outline the duration, capacity and type of info encoded of the stores in the MSM...
|Who proposed the MSM and in what year? How is info lost from the STM?
|Atkinson & Shiffrin 1968 If insufficient rehearsal, info is lost from STM through displacement or decay
|Evidence for separate memory stores? ( Multi-store model of memory)
|Glanzer & Cunitz 1966 - Serial positioning study 2 conditions, 1 group did immediate recall, the other delayed recall after 30 secs ( interference task) Found condition 1 remembered first and last few words the best (primacy/recency effect) Condition 2 remembered last few words, yet both had trouble recalling from middle of the list
|Further evidence for seperate stores in MSM from case studies?
|Clive Wearing - Viral encephalitis which developed anterograde amnesia which meant he could not form new memories. His STM can only hold info for 7-30 secs Henry Molaison 1966 - Hippocampus removed to cure his severe epilepsy, memory prior to op was fine but now can't create new memories
|Weaknesses of Multistore Model of memory by Atkinson & Shiffrin 1968
|- Overemphasis on role of rehearsel - Too simplistic - WMM argues STM is not a unitry store - Unlikely different types of knowledge would be stored in same place -HM's procedural memory is improving ( mirror tracing task) - Passive one way model
|Define the terms availability and accessibility
|Availability = A memory is determined by whether the info exists in LTM or not. Forgetting implies info has been destroyed Accessibility = Memories are dependent on effective retrieval, it may be available (stored) in LTM but we may not be able to access it
|Define decay and displacement
|Decay = the break down of a memory trace over a period of time if rehearsel does not take plae. Focus is on the limited duration of STM (0-30) Displacement = When new info is received by STM, old info gets replaced. Focus on limited capacity of STM (Miller's 7+-2)
|Evidence for decay?
|Peterson & Peterson 1959 - if rehearsal was prevented, recall was reduced to 80% after 3 secs and 20% after 18 secs However hard to determine whether the loss of info is due to decay or displacement
|Evidence for displacement?
|Waugh & Norman 1965 - Serial Probe Technique Participants were presented with a sequence of numbers and at the end the experimenter would tell them the probe number which appeared and the ppt has to say which number followed it. Recall was better for (probe number) items at the end of sequence, evidence for displacement as there are fewer digits to replace them at the end. ALSO can explain recency effect in Glanzer & Cunitz 1966 serial positioning study
|What are the three ways of forgetting in the LTM?
|Decay - Info not being used or practiced will decay Interference - memory can be disrupted by previous or future learning Cue dependent forgetting - retreival of memory depends on retrieval of cuees. Info cannot be accessed if cues aren't present.
|Evidence for decay in LTM?
|Bahrick & Phelps 1987, found college graduates knowledge of spanish declined rapidly in first 3-4 years then declined more slowly.
|Contradictory evidence for trace decay in LTM?
|The elderly are able to talk about their childhood ( episodic memory) Bahrick et al 1975, recall of school friends was prompted by photographs If decay was the only explanation you would expect all memories to decay at the same rate ( Individual differences)
|What are the two types of interference in LTM?
|1. Proactive - when previous learning interferes with later learning (old disrupting new) 2. Retroactive - When later learning disrupts previous learning ( new disrupting old)
|Evidence for Retroactive interference?
|Postman 1960 2 groups of participants who both had to remember a list of paired words (cat-tree). The experimental group also had to learn another list of words where the 2nd paired word was different (cat-glass). All participants were asked to recall the words on the 1st list. Recall of control group was more accurate than experimental suggesting learning 2nd list interfered with recall of original list.
|What are the two types of Cues in Cue dependent forgetting?
|Internal - Something about our mood or emotional state External - Something to do with our context or external environment
|Evidence for Context dependent ( External) cues?
|1. Abernethy 1940 - Students who sat a test in their normal classroom scored higher marks than those sat in a different room 2. Baddeley 1975 - ppts recalled 40% more words when retrieval took place in same room 3. Tulving & Pearlstone 1966 - Ppts recalled more words on the list when they were told which category they belonged to.
|Evidence for state dependent (internal) cues?
|Goodwin et al 1969 - Ppts who hid money when drunk, where only able to recall where it was when they were drunk again ( not sober) Miles & Hardman 1998 - Info learnt whilst exercising was better recalled when exercising rather than resting
|What are the recommendations for increasing accuracy in EWT?
|1. Double blind administration of line ups 2. Sequential presentation - suspects shown one by one rather than all together 3. Instructions are given to the witness ( the suspect may or may not be in the line up) 4. Confidence statemen
|Outline the Loftus & Palmer study 1974 and their findings...
|To test this Loftus and Palmer (1974) asked people to estimate the speed of motor vehicles using different forms of questions. Found that those given the word smashed were more likely to report seeing broken glass. Conclusion language can affect reconstructive memeory
|Supporting research into the effect of leading questions on EWT?
|Wagstaff et al 2000 asked ppts if they had seen footage of 5 disastrous events which happened. Most said yes despite the fact no footage existed for 2 of them. Pezdek 2003, 73% of ppts incorrectly reported seeing video on 911 first plane crash on the day. ( Not possible)
|What is the effect of stress and anxiety on EWT ( Research ) ?
|The london dungeon study 2009 - ppts with high state anxiety had poorer memory and poor identification accuracy (17%) compared to low state anxiety group (75%). Deffenbacher et al 2004 - meta analysis and found recall was significantly lower when individual had high levels of stress
|Research that stress may help recall in EWT?
|Christianson & Hubinette 1993 found witnesses to real bank robberies who had been threatened had better recall than onlookers who were not involved but were close to the scene.
|What is the Yerkes-Dodson curve? (EWT)
|What is the weapon focus effect by Loftus 1979?
|The presence of a weapon interferes with EWT. Due to increased threat which increases arousal. Maass & Kohnken 1989 investigated effects on memory of someone approaching with a syringe. General details about attacker were poorly remembered. Effect more prevalent for those anxious about needles.
|What are the 4 stages of the Cognitive Interview Technique by Geiselman 1992
|1. Mentally reinstate context/ state 2. Report everything 3. Report the Incident from different perspectives 4. Recall in different narrative order