Memory - AQA Psychology Unit 1 GCSE - created from Mind Map


Mind map for AQA Psychology GCSE memory
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Multi store model Encoding- Storage- Retrieval Sensory- very brief memory Short term - 7 chunks Long term - Lots of information Murdock Practical apps Learn lists of words with 2 secs per word. Then were told to recall the words in any order. Words from the end of the lost were recalled the best and the ones at the beginning were also quoted quite well Evaluation Practical Implication Primacy/recency effect Lacks ecological validity and mundane realism - Not very realistic Not everything in the world has to be recalled only remembered Helps us understand why it is so difficult top remember phone numbers as the primacy and recency effect will mostly remember the first and last numbers Car registrations not being longer than 7 Postcodes not longer than 7

Reconstructive memory Bartlett Evaluation Practical Applications See if people would alter the information in a story to make it seem more familiar if it seemed odd to them. Recalled the war of the ghosts several times in following weeks . .Each time they told it they replaced unfamiliar elements with more familiar times. Changing it more each time they retold it Very difficult to measure accuracy of retelling of story. High Mundane realism as the situation is quite real Explains why two different people may give two completely different version of the same event Be careful with eyewitness testimonies Does not necessarily mean one of them is lying Whilst thinking they might be accurate they may be altering the information without meaning to

Levels of processing Structural processing - Physical appearance of words Phonetic processing - Sounds of the words Semantic processing - Meaning of the words Craik and Lockhart Practical applications Participants presented with a list of words one at a time. Had to answer questions about the words with yes/no answers. Required different kinds of processing for each question. 70% identified words which required semantic. 35% phonetic. 15% Structural Evaluation - Doesn't explain why semantic is better only proves it is. Some say that deeper processing takes a lot more time. Low ecological validity and mundane realism Improve study skills

Forgetting Interference Context Brain Damage Underwood and Postman Retroactive interference - recently learnt information hinders our ability to recall other information we recently learnt Proactive interference - when information we have already learnt hinders our ability to recall new information 2 groups A and B. Group A had two lists of two word pairs they had to learn. Group B only having 1 list. Group B's first list more accurate then group A. New learning interfered with the learning of the first list with the group A Godden and Baddeley Deep sea divers in 4 groups. Group 1 underwater recall and learn words. Group 2 Learn underwater recall above water. Group 3 Learn on shore and recall on shore. Group 4 learn on shore and recall underwater. Groups 1 and 3 recalled 40% more words than Groups 2 and 4. Recalling will be better if it is the same place as it learnt Practical application - Studying in same place as exam will help to remember information Anterograde amnesia - being unable to lean new information after suffering brain damage Retrograde amnesia - Loss of memory for events that happened before the brain damage occured

Memory - AQA Psychology Unit 1 GCSE

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