AB - Week 1


Basic flashcards for Abnormal Psychology
Tori Bates
Flashcards by Tori Bates, updated more than 1 year ago
Tori Bates
Created by Tori Bates almost 9 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
What is Psychopathology? (Define) Psychopathology is the scientific study of psychological disorders.
What are the 3 'D's? Name and explain each. Distress (or impairment): when the individual is experiencing distress or it is impairing their ability to live. Dysfunction: a breakdown in functioning. This may include changes in the way they think, act, feel, etc. Deviation: how normal are their actions/thoughts.
What is the DSM? The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
Define 'Atheoretical'. What does it mean in regards to abnormal psychology? Atheoretical means to be impartial to any specific theory of causality. This means that the therapist does not have one soul belief on how the disorder originated in the individual presenting with a mental illness.
The term 'mental disorder' implies that there is a dysfunction in 1 or more area. What are some of the areas that a dysfunction may be occurring? Appearance, behaviour, though, feeling (affect and mood), memory, concentration, and state of consciousness.
Define 'Symptoms'. The 'complaints' made by a person seeking treatment (i.e. pain, sadness, worry).
Define 'Signs'. The health professionals findings (i.e. irregular heartbeat, disorientation).
Define 'Syndrome'. A cluster of symptoms and signs.
In regards to mental disorders, what is a variable course? A variable course is the length of time that the disorder lasts.
Name and explain the 3 common variable courses for mental disorders. Episodic course: isolated single episodes Chronic course: Happens over a longer period of time Time-limited course: the disorder will improve on it's own in a relatively short period of time
What is meant by 'variable severity'? Variable severity means that the severity of the mental illness can be influenced by a number of factors such as drugs, alcohol, stress, dehydration, etc.
What % of adults suffer from a mental disorder in a standard year? 20% (1 in 5 people)
What is 'Comorbidity'? (Define) Comorbidity is when an individual suffers from 2 or more mental dissorders (i.e. anxiety and depression).
Define 'Prevalence'. Prevalence is the percentage of the population with the disorder at a certain time.
Define 'Incidence'. Incidence is that rate at which new cases occur in a certain place at a certain time.
Define 'Etiology'. Etiology refers to the origin of the disorder, and it's causes.
How long have mental disorders been around? Evidence supports that mental disorders have been around for hundreds of years.
In what countries/cultures can mental illnesses occurs? All countries and cultures show signs of some form of mental illness, even if it is only consistent with their culture and beliefs.
What is the 'supernatural tradition'. Provide an example of a treatment method used by this approach. The supernatural tradition is an explanatory framework for mental illness. It believes that an evil being is controlling the individual. Exorcism and drilling holes into the skull were common treatment methods.
What is the 'biological tradition'. Provide an example of a treatment method used by this approach. The biological tradition is an explanatory framework that attempts to explain mental illness as a result of an issue within the body. Hippocrates 4 bodily humors are an example of treatment methods.
What is the 'psychological tradition'. Provide an example of a treatment method used by this approach. The psychological tradition is an explanatory framework that attempts to explain mental illness as a result of psychological and social factors. Psychoanalysis and behaviorism are examples of treatment methods.
What is the 'scientist-practitioner model'? The scientist-practitioner model is a model that encourages the scientists and practitioners to work together, in order to create techniques that work. This is also known as evidence-based practice.
Define 'evidence-based practice'. Evidence-based practice refers to the methods used by clinicians that have scientific evidence to support them.
What is meant by having an integrated approach? Why is it important to have an integrated approach? Having an integrated approach means to take into consideration all theories of mental illnesses. This is important as evidence shows that there are complex interactions between these components. Theories include biological, behavioural, cognitive, emotional, and social.
List some areas and factors that may interact to result in the development and presentation of psychopathology. Biological: genes, neuroscience Psychological: behavioural, emotional, cognitive Social: interpersonal Cultural and Environmental: context in which the problems present Developmental: affects vulnerability and manifestation of psychopathology at certain stages of life
In regards to genes, explain what is meant by the term 'polygenic'. How can genes influence psychopathology? Polygenic refers to the idea that it is not the work of a single gene that is responsible for a mental illness (i.e. alcoholism could be a result of multiple genes). Genes can give an individual a predisposition or vulnerability to mental illness, that may or may not need an environmental trigger (Diathesis-Stress Model).
What is the Diathesis-Stress Model? Define Diathesis. Define Stress. The Diathesis-Stress Model views mental illness as being produced by a predisposition/vulnerability and an additional stressful event. Diathesis: Refers to the underlying vulnerability Stress: The trigger (i.e. experiences, trauma)
Explain what the 'Gene-enviroment correlational model' is. The gene-enviromental correlational model is similar to the idea of channeling. There may be a genetic predisposition for the development of a particular disorder, which is paired with a genetic predisposition to experience environmental risk (seek out a particular environment that may trigger the disorder). (Channeling was touched on in PSYC213)
Define the term 'epigenetics'. Epigenetics refers to the environmental influences that actually affect the expression of certain genes for both the individual and devendents (i.e. stress, nutrition). An example is the cross fostering of rats study, where rats who were born to anxious mums (predisposition) but were raised by calm mums (environmental influence) grew up calm. ENVIRONMENT OVERRIDES GENETICS!
Explain how neurotransmitters play a role in psychopathology. Discuss the 'cause or effect' debate of neurotransmitters and psychopathology, Neurons transmit messages through neurotransmitters. Evidence suggests that some mental disorders are accompanied by imbalanced levels of particular neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, nor-epinephrine). However, it is unknown whether these imbalances are a cause or effect of mental disorders.
In regards to neurotransmitters and psychpathology, define 'agonists'. There are two types of drugs prescribed to individuals experiencing mental illness. Agonists increase the activity (level) of a particular neurotransmitter.
In regards to neurotransmitters and psychpathology, define 'antagonists'. There are two types of drugs prescribed to individuals experiences mental illness. Antagonists decrease the activity (level) of a particular neurotransmitter.
What is meant by brain structure abnormalities in regards to psychopathology? Some mental disorders such as schizophrenia also show abnormal brain structure (i.e. cerebral cortex, limbic system)
What are the 3 factors that make up the 'Psychological Perspective'? Cognitive science, positive psychology, and emotions.
What does 'Cognitive Science' focus on? Explain. Focuses on how people process and interpret situations. These processes and interpretations influence how they feel about the situation and what they do about it (i.e. the loss of a job).
What is 'Positive Psychology'? Positive psychology investigates what individuals do to create positive attitudes and happiness (i.e. posttraumatic growth).
Why are emotions important in the psychological perspective? What are the 3 components of emotion? It allows us to assess an individuals emotions as many psychological disorders involve disruptions in emotional regulation. Components of emotion include: Behaviour, physiology, and cognition.
Discuss the 'Sociocultural Perspective". What impact does gender have? Basically, the social and cultural framework we are exposed to can have large impacts on psychopathology and therefore, an individuals behaviour can only be understood within their cultural framework. Things like gender can influence the development and expression of psychopathology.
What does the 'Developmental Perspective' focus on? Why is development an important consideration? Focuses on the experiences during different periods of development, as an individual may be more vulnerable to certain disorders during that stage. It is an important thing to consider when evaluating if a behaviour is problematic or normal for that stage of development.
LECTURE SUMMARY CARD Multiple causation is the rule, not the exception. You need to take a board, comprehensive, systemic perspective (Biological and neuroscientific, cognitive and emotional, social cultural and developmental). A multidimensional approach puts us in the best position to understand the causes of psychopathology, as well as alleviate and prevent psychopathology.
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