A Levels GCSE Flashcards on History, created by Heidi C on 19/05/2015.
Heidi C
Flashcards by Heidi C, updated more than 1 year ago
Heidi C
Created by Heidi C almost 9 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
What was decided at the Yalta conference? Germany would pay reparations Germany would be split into 4 zones The United Nations was set up Free elections in countries of E. Europe Once Germany was defeated the USSR would join war against Japan.
What was decided at the Potsdam conference? There were arguments about the boundaries of the zones Disagreements about the AMOUNT of reparations Germany had to pay USA tested the atomic bomb
What was the Iron curtain? A theoretical divide between East and West Germany said by Churchill in 1946.
What is the Truman doctrine? Harry Truman offered to support any country threatened by communism. This was part of Americas containment plan.
What is Marshall Aid? (March 1947) It was an attempt to rebuild Europe after the war and put the ideas of the Truman Doctrine into effect. $13 billion was given to stop countries turning communist.
How was Germany divided after the war? It was split into 4 zones between USSR, USA, GB and France. As the capital Berlin was in the USSR section that was also split into the 4 zones. USA, Britain and France joined their zones to create West Germany.
What was the Berlin Blockade? (JUNE 1948 - MAY 1949) Stalin blocked roads, canals and rail routes to West Germany. However he was still unable to stop supplies being bought in (Berlin Airlift).
What was the Berlin Airlift? Lasted 10 1/2 months during the Berlin blockade to bring supplies into West Germany. A plane dropped supplies into West Germany every 90 seconds.
Why did Stalin blockade Berlin? Because GB, USA and France had joined their zones to make West Germany and they wanted to create a strong economy. The West wanted to introduce a new currency - this would mean that the East and West would become separate economically. The Marshall plan was making life in West Berlin much better so people in East Berlin were trying to escape to the West.
What does NATO mean and when was it set up? North Atlantic Treaty Organisation 1949 - During the Berlin Blockade
What was NATO (what was it for/what did it do)? 13 Countries joined in 1949 (since then most of W.Europe have joined - including formed communist countries such as Hungary and Poland). An organisation that meant if any of the countries in the group was attacked then all of the other countries would protect it.
Who did Castro overthrow in 1959 and how? Cuba (since 1952) had been ruled by Batista - a ruthless dictator. (1953) Castro TRIED to overthrow him but was defeated and imprisoned. (1956) Castro released and started guerrilla war. (1959) Castro had enough support to take Cuba's capital and successfully overthrew Batista
How did Fidel Castro anger the Americans? He was communist He began to make relations with USSR He took control of American-owned sugar mills The USSR offered to buy Cuba's sugar instead of America's He shut down gambling casinos and brothels
What was the Bay of Pigs invasion? April 15, 1961 Many people fled Cuba (to the USA) when Castro came to power however many stayed and supported his ideas. The US decided to train and equip a guerrilla army or 1,400 Cuban exiles (as then it wouldn't be seen as an act of war). However Cuba already knew about the plan and they surrendered after less than 24 hours of fighting.
How were missiles spotted over Cuba? (1962) A U-2 spy planes detect Soviet missiles in Cuba (from Cuba the missiles could be fired to attack US cities with very little warning - Cuba is only 100 miles from US).
How did USA (Kennedy) respond to missiles being built in Cuba? Kennedy ordered a naval blockade - all Soviet ships were to be stopped and searched to prevent any more missiles being built in Cuba. Kennedy prepared to invade Cuba and demanded that Khrushchev removes all of its missiles. Soviet ships started to travel towards the blockade. Eventually Khrushchev made a deal to remove the missiles from Cuba and ordered the ships to turn around. In exchange the US lifted the blockade, promised to not invade Cuba - and secretly agreed to remove their missiles from Turkey.
What is the domino theory? The Americans believe that if Vietnam falls to communism, then all of the other countries of South east Asia would also fall to communism. This was also part of their containment plan.
How was Vietnam split into South and North? In the 19th century Vietnam was ruled by the French. During WW2 a communist group called the Viet Minh formed and they wanted to become independent (make Vietnam communist - but this would go against Americas domino theory).
How did Kennedy increase involvement in the Vietnam war? After Vietnam was spit US supported the anti-communist South president (even though he was very corrupt). He helped the South by sending financial, political and military advice and help. In 1960 the Vietcong was formed, US sent 12,000 advisers, financial aid and military equipment to help with containment (of communism).
Who were the Vietcong? A group of left wing, communist fighters who fought for North Vietnam. They used guerrilla war tactics and dressed as Vietnamese civilians.
When and what was the Tet Offensive? January 1968 Tet was the celebration of the lunar new year and during the Vietnam war it was said that there was to be no fighting for 7 days. However on JANUARY 31ST 1968 the Vietcong made a big surprise attack on the South.
Was the Tet offensive a success or a failure for the US? + US believed it was a success as it killed most of the Vietcong (and Us remained in control) - However it also killed and injured many of the US fighters (and innocent civilians) - The US public were severely against the war (as they had seen it televised) -The Vietcong looked much stronger than the US (they had a weak military and were able to surprise and attack the US).
How did the US fight the Vietcong? Operation rolling thunder Search and destroy Napalm Agent orange 'Hearts and Minds'
What was the 'Hearts and Minds' technique used by the US to fight the Vietcong? US wanted to win the South Vietnamese 'Hearts and Minds', so that they wouldn't help the Vietcong. They tried to do this be providing free health care and training programmes for Vietnamese villagers. Not successful as the people had been badly affected by the USA's use of chemical weapons and also their 'search and destroy' missions. US were also unpopular as it supported the corrupt South Vietnamese government.
What was operation rolling thunder? It was a big bombing campaign against North Vietnam (from March 1965 - 1968). It was to destroy their industry and stop supplies (to weaken them - to stop them supplying the Vietcong). It wasn't successful as Vietnam's economy relied on farming, so it wasn't badly affected. Supplies continued to arrive.
How did media coverage lead many people to oppose the war? The presence of the media in Vietnam meant the US public could see what the war was really like. During the 1960s most people in the US owned televisions (and watched the news). After the Tet Offensive reporting showed the US as losing the war. The US started to look as 'brutal' as the South Vietnamese (the famous photo).
What is the order of US presidents? Eisenhower Kennedy Johnson (Elected after Kennedy was assassinated) Nixon (Replaced Johnson after Tet Offensive)
What was Vietnamisation? Nixon's way to remove US troops from Vietnam but still fight in the war (South Vietnamese troops fight on their own). US invested money into the South Vietnamese army to recruit more troops and provide training and weapons.
How was Vietnamisation unsuccessful? It was unsuccessful as S.Vietnamese troops lacked discipline. Also the remaining US troops were not committed to the war as they were committed to going home.
What (guerilla) tactics did the Vietcong use? Ho Chi Minh trail They knew the land well so knew when are where to attack. Large tunnel systems (that include hospitals, army barracks etc.). Disguised as villagers so hard to identify. The returned to where US had driven them out from (so US army seemed to be making little progress).
What was the Ho Chi Minh trail? North Vietnamese supply route. It allowed soldiers, supplies and weapons to be sent from the North to support Vietcong fighting in the South. US tried to bomb the trail but never managed to break it, as new routes could be created easily and it was hard to bomb routes in the jungle. Also some routes were just decoys to confuse the Americans.
Why was the Weimar constitution a weak government? Proportional representation (this leads to coalition governments). The president is elected but they appoint the Chancellor (Hindenburg appointed Hitler). Article 48 - Means that a president can pass a law without going through the Reichstag (in an emergency) - Hitler and the Enabling Act.
When was the Treaty of Versailles signed? What/Who were the November criminals? It was signed in 1919. The Weimar gov. were called the November Criminals as they signed the Treaty. This was because it meant Germany was to blame for the war, they had to pay reparations etc.
What was the Spartacist revolt? A communist revolt/uprising led by Rosa Luxemburg. The Weimar used the Freikorps (a group of ex-soldiers) to fight the Spartacists.
What was the Kapp Putsch? A right wing revolt led by Wolfgang Kapp. As it was a right wing revolt the Freikorps could not be used to fight against them therefore a General strike was used to stop it.
When and what was the Ruhr invasion? How did the Ruhr invasion cause hyperinflation? 1923 Germany missed several reparation payments. France and Belgium invaded the Ruhr (and took over). The Weimar government demanded all workers to go on strike. They printed more money to pay the workers and their reparations (but money became worthless) - Hyperinflation.
When and what was the Munich Putsch? 1923 Hitler (and the Nazis) try to take power, however it fails as no one supports them - it ends in a shootout and Hitler being imprisoned. Makes Hitler realise he needs public support (to be voted in it needs to be legal).
What happened to the Weimar government in 1923? Invasion of the Ruhr - then general strike Hyperinflation Spartacist revolt Munich Putsch Kapp Putsch
Who were the SS and the SA? SS - Hitler's personal bodyguard SA / Brown Shirts - Hitler's personal army
Who helped Germany to join the League of Nations? Stresemann
How was hyperinflation resolved? The Dawes plan was introduced. This meant a new currency for Germany, a longer reparation payment time and Germany also got a loan from America (to repair economy and pay reparations).
Why did the Nazis gain support? The rich business men were worried as the workers were turning to communism, so they turned to Hitler's campaigns. Middle-class people wanted a strong government. They promised to solve/stop unemployment.
How did Hitler become president? JANUARY 1933 Hindenburg and Papen offer to make Hitler vice Chancellor (to get the Nazis on their side). Hitler refused and demanded to be made Chancellor as they thought they could control him. Once Chancellor he started to use Article 48 to become absolute ruler. Once Hindenburg died Hitler declared himself President, Chancellor and head of the army. (19TH AUGUST 1934).
Was the Weimar government successful? - It was weak due to proportional representation, abuses of Article 48 etc. - Treaty of Versailles - November Criminals - Hyperinflation, Kapp Putsch, Munich Putsch, Spartacist revolt etc. +
When and what was the Reichstag fire? How did it matter/help Hitler? 27TH FEBRUARY 1933 The Reichstag is set on fire. Van der Lubbe (a Dutch communist) was caught red handed in the building. This gave Hitler the opportunity to say they were under threat from communism and also imprison many communist leaders (to stop them campaigning during the election). Courts convicted Van Der Lubbe, but not the other leaders, so Hitler replaced the courts with the Nazis people courts. Hitler also gets given emergency powers to help him suppress the communists.
How does Hitler gain the Enabling Act? How did he use it? Nazis win the General election 5TH MARCH 1933. The SA then intimidate all of the non-Nazi deputies in the Reichstag. The Reichstag then votes to give Hitler the right to make his own laws. No elections, no political parties (other than the Nazis), no Reichstag, Hitler can make all of his own laws.
When and what was the night of the long knives? 30TH JUNE 1934 Some SA leaders demand that the Nazi party carry out it's socialist agenda and that the SA take over the army. Hitler could not afford to annoy the businessmen or the army, so the SS murder around 400 of the SA (including it's leader Rohm and many of Hitler's other opponents).
How were the youths in Germany 'Nazified'? Non-Nazi teachers were sacked. Textbooks were re-written to include Nazi political and racial ideas. History was taught to glorify Germany. Education was concentrated on physical fitness. Girls and boys were taught different e.g. cooking vs science. The Hitler Youth was compulsory for boys (to prepare them for war). The Nazi Girls' Youth Organisation/BDM/ League of German Maidens was compulsory for girls (to prepare them for the 3 K's).
What was the RAD? National Labour Service All men 18-25 had to spend 6 months in the RAD. They planted forests, built motorways etc. but given camp to live, free meals and low wage. This made Nazi unemployment rates drop rapidly.
What was KdF? Strength through Joy It helped to control everybody's leisure time. They did this by offering: Cheap cruise holidays, Travel opportunities, Building health clubs, Organising coach trips, Trips to the theatre/cinema, Skiing/sailing, Sports
What was Kristallnacht? 9TH NOVEMBER 1938 Attacks on Jewish homes, business and synagogues.
What were the Nuremberg Laws? 15TH SEPTEMBER 1935 Jews could not be citizens and they were not allowed to marry a German. Forbidden to own a business, own a radio, they were forced to live in Ghettos, forced to wear star of David, sent to concentration camps.
What were Hitler's 4 main economic policy ideas? 1) Full employment - By 1939 there was virtually no unemployment in Germany. 2) Beauty of work - The thought that everyone who could work should. 3) Re-armament - Began in 1935, the idea of 'guns before butter'. 4) Autarky - To make Germany self-sufficient (there was an unsuccessful attempt at this).
How did life improve for German people under Hitler's rule? He opened the VW factory. Nazis set up a scheme to allow workers to buy a VW beetle (the German people's car), for a small weekly payment. Everybody had a job and a wage 'work and bread'. Nazis set up the KdF. The autobahns (motorways) improved transport and travel. No crime. Nazi ideology gave people hope and confidence. Nazi youth provided activities for young people.
How did Hitler increase employment? He stopped paying reparations and invested money in German companies. Rearmament created jobs in rearmament. RAD. Many Jews and women were sacked (to give jobs to non-Jewish men).
What reforms were introduced in 1906? Free school meals for children The workers compensation act (compensation for injury at work).
What reforms were introduced in 1908? Children and young person's act/Children's charter (parents cannot neglect their children, illegal to sell cigarettes to children, juvenile courts set up). The pensions act. 8hr day for miners.
When was the NIA introduced? What is the difference between part 1 and part 2? 1911 Part 1: Certain people were allowed free medical treatment and sick pay (if they paid 4d a week). Part 2: Certain people were allowed unemployment pay (for a certain amount of time) if they paid in 2 1/2 d a week.
How were all of the reforms paid for? The 1909 budget (introduced by Lloyd George) - Raising tax for the rich, to pay for the reforms for the poor. This angered all of the rich people.
How were the people in Britain (at home) affected by WW1? 1) Recruitment and conscription 2) DORA 3) Propoganda 4) Civilian casualties 5) Female recruitment e.g. helping in the war effort 'total war'. 6) Ministry of food - Rationing 7) Role of women - (Women's Land Army) They took over the men's jobs e.g. firemen, working in munitions factories
Arguments for womens sufferage Women are equal before God. Women already have the vote in local elections. Some women e.g. doctors are better than some men e.g convicts. Other countries have given women the vote.
Arguments against women's suffrage A woman's place is in the home (the rough worls of politics will change her caring nature). Many women do not want the vote and would not use it if they got it. Women do not fight in wars If women are given the vote it will not be the intelligent gentle women who stand for parliament, it will be the violent suffragettes (Parliament will be ruined). Many women do not know about politics and would not use their votes properly.
What is the difference between suffragettes and suffragists? Suffragettes (WSPU): Formed in 19043 by Sylvia Pankhurst but was led by Emmeline Pankhurst. Made up of working-class women. Used violent methods. Suffragists (NUWSS): Formed in 1897 and led by Millicent Fawcett. Made up of middle and working-class men and women. Used peaceful methods.
What was the Cat and mouse act? The campaigners (suffragettes) started to hunger strike once being imprisoned, then they released them (so they would eat) and then rearrest them. They did this because force-feeding them did not work.
When did women get the vote? 1918
What was DORA? Defence of the Realm Act Passed in August 1914. DORA allowed the government to take over the coal mines, railways and shipping. Lloyd George became Minister of Munitions and set up state-run munitions factories. The government worked with the trade unions to prevent strikes.
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