|Wearing of the shoreline by sediment carried by water flow. Erosion by scraping, scouring and rubbing of load in contact with banks and bed (Corrasion)
|Planting trees in the catchment area of a drainage basin to increase interception storage and evapotranspiration
|Porous and Permeable rocks that can store water
|Rain that falls on already saturated soil. Soil cannot take any more water so it becomes surface runoff.
|Reduction/rounding of particles of sediment carried in water by repeat collision with other sediment/banks
|The state of flow of a river when it completely fills its channel (at capacity)
|Larger material, cobbles, pebbles and sand transported by saltation.
|Interconnected channels separated by deposited material
|The total volume of sediment a river can carry
|Measurement of the long axis of sediment in a river
|The land that drains water into a particular river system
|Deepening/Widening of the channel to accommodate larger discharge and transport it faster
|Movement of water within the river channel
|The maximum size (calibre) of load a river is capable of transporting
|Process that water vapour is converted into water
|Erosion by friction of load in contact with banks/bed (Abrasion)
|Dissolving of carbonate rocks (eg. Limestone) in water flow.
|Cross sectional area
|Channel depth x Chanel width
|Barriers that hols back water and create a large reservoir behind them.
|A Shortage eg. soil moisture
|Formed when the amount of sediment delivered to the mouth of a river exceeds the amount taken away by waves, and so it is deposited.
|When the rivers competence is not great enough to carry the sediment, so it is dropped.
|Volume of water flowing in a river per second, measured in cumecs (Cubic metres per second)
|(Solution load) When weak acids in water flow dissolve material in solution.
|Small channel that leaves the main river on a delta (one of the braided channels)
|The area in which water will flow into one particular river
|The removal of sediment from the river bed to increase channel depth
|Fast-flowing circular currents of water in the rivers flow
|Transformation of water into water vapour by heat from the sun
|Amount of water that can be held by the soil before rainfall becomes antecedent.
|Loss of water from a drainage basin into the atmosphere from the processes of evaporation and transpiration.
|River load particles joining together on contact with salt in sea water, increasing weight and causing them to be deposited
|A temporary excess of water that spills over onto the land
|Reducing possibility of flooding by managing land use upstream. Eg. afforestation
|Building up of levees around river channel
|Flood interception schemes
|Intercepting the channel, diverting part of the flow for town/agricultural use and to move water to flood retention areas.
|Temporary protection against flooding. Eg. sandbags or Permanent Eg. Flood proof walls/flood gates
|Flood relief channel
|Constructed to redirect excess water ahead of a settlement
|Increasing height of channel, preventing water spilling out over floodplain
|Flat and broad valley floor created by successive flooding events depositing alluvium (sediments)
|How often flooding occurs
|Narrow, rocky, steep-sided valley, created by recession of a waterfall
|Also called the long profile
|Storage of water in permeable rock under subsoil
|Movement of water through permeable rock under subsoil
|Flood management strategies that involve structural measures offering protection through engineering.
|Water flow pattern where the fastest current spirals across the channel in a corkscrew motion
|Graph showing relationship between velocity, erosion and deposition.
|Force exerted by moving water on bed and banks of river
|Ratio of the cross sectional area of the channel and the length of its wetted perimeter
|Graph showing the discharge, depth and velocity of a given point of a stream at a particular time (normally during a storm)
|Downward movement of water into soil
|Speed (mm/s) at which water passes through ground into soil
|Prevention of precipitation reaching Earth's surface by trees and vegetation
|Total volume of water held on surface of vegetation
|Break of slope in the long profile. Often upper limit which downcutting from rejuvination has reached. Marked by rapids/waterfalls
|Middle/lower sections where river has high energy especially if close to bankfull. Widens valley, especially strong on meanders, where hydraulic action undercuts river cliffs
|Natural ridge formed by deposition of coarse material along channel edge.
|Lining the channel
|Lining river with concrete, making it smoother and reducing friction, allowing water to flow faster
|Material carried by river
|Size of the food
|Bends in a river formed by helicoidal flow, with erosion on the outside and deposition on the inside
|Restoring rivers to a more natural state by removing hard engineering
|Movement of water over surface of land, usually when ground is saturated or frozen
|Time when maximum amount of rain was falling
|Gravity flow of water seeping into soil or rock
|Sediments laid down on the inside of a meander
|Formed by abrasion, pebbles carried by flow get stuck in crack, an eddied is formed and the pebbles grinds down in circular motion to form pothole
|All moisture that reaches the Earth including rain, snow and dew
|Changing height of a river from source to mouth, also called long profile
|Stretches of fast flowing water over rock and shallow riverbed
|Straightening/shortening of river course by removing meanders, increases gradient making water move faster
|Annual pattern of river discharge
|Renewal of energy permitting accelerated erosion and transport. Rivers adjusting to new base level
|Outside of a meander, steep undercut bank
|Returning uplands to peat bog increasing absorption in soil
|Shape of sediment in a river, changes downstream as a result of attriction
|Water flowing over land surface as channel flow/overland flow
|Small stones bounce along channel bed
|Curving nature of a meander. Actual channel length divided by straight line distance
|Barriers that hold water back, some pump water in opposite direction
|Flood management strategies that are non-structural, more 'natural'
|Total amount of water, including water vapour in unsaturated soil
|Dissolved minerals transported within mass of moving water
|Flow down plant trunks/stems following interception.
|Water that reaches the channel through runoff. Combination of overland flow and rapid throughflow
|Layers of rock
|Total volume of water on surface in lakes etc
|More than is needed Eg. Soil moisture
|Bulk of sediment transported by river. Reason most rivers are brown in colour in bankfull
|Movement of water downslope within soil layer
|Large stones rolled along river bed
|Increase in proportion of countries population living in urban areas
|Speed and direction at which a body of water moves (m/s)
|Dominates upper reaches of river cutting into bed by abrasion and hydraulic action
|Relationship between inputs and outputs in drainage basin, shown as graph
|Wet lands allowed to flood at times of high discharge, to reduce impact elsewhere
|Steep or verticle part of the river, occur when hard rock lies across the river with soft rock downstream which erodes faster
|Boundary between two drainage basins, usually ridges of high land
|Surface of saturated layer of soil/rock
|Portion of perimeter of a stream channel cross section that is in contact with the water