Hard Engineering


a level Geography Mind Map on Hard Engineering, created by jessica.simms on 22/02/2015.
Mind Map by jessica.simms, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by jessica.simms about 9 years ago

Resource summary

Hard Engineering
  1. Dams
    1. A barrier to obstruct the flow of water
      1. +Highly effective
        1. + Supply HEP
          1. -Silt collects behind dams
            1. +Create jobs
              1. - Could force people out of homes
                1. - Unnatural
                  1. -Expensive
                    1. -Flood areas upstream
                    2. CASE STUDY Three gorges dam
                    3. Removal of settlements
                      1. -Expensive/Complicated
                        1. + 100% flood risk reduction
                        2. Flood interception Schemes
                          1. building a bypass channel,using a new channel to store excess water, using embanments
                            1. -Expensive
                              1. +reduces flood risk in towns/cities
                            2. Flood storage resevoirs
                              1. store excess water in upper reaches of catchment
                                1. +Natural looking
                                  1. + Can provide water elsewhere
                                    1. -Requires a lot of land
                                      1. -Expensive due to buying land
                                        1. Unless built on cheap high land (little of this in the U.k)
                                    2. Relief channels
                                      1. redirect water around a settlement to re-enter the main channel later
                                        1. +can be used to supply water as well
                                          1. +Natural looking
                                            1. -Expensive so can only be used where it is impossible to alter existing channel
                                          2. Channel improvements
                                            1. Smoother(with concrete), dredging, channel straightening
                                              1. +Move water out of area quicker
                                                1. +Increases channel capacity
                                                  1. +Accomodates larger discharge
                                                    1. -can increase risk of flooding downstream
                                                      1. -requires maintenence
                                                        1. -Short term benefits
                                                          1. -More erosion downstream
                                                            1. -Enlarged channels often arent used and fill with weeds
                                                          2. Flood walls, levees and embankments
                                                            1. Walls and levees add height to channel
                                                              1. +Embankments(if set back from channel) can provide storage for excess flood waters while inhabited areas remain unaffected
                                                                1. -Expensive
                                                                  1. - Eye sore
                                                                    1. -Could speed up water downstream and flood somewhere else
                                                                  Show full summary Hide full summary


                                                                  Comparing a major flood in an MEDC and an LEDC- CASE STUDY!
                                                                  The Coastal System
                                                                  Phoebe Fletcher
                                                                  Factors affecting the energy of rivers
                                                                  Phoebe Fletcher
                                                                  Demographic Transition Model (DTM)
                                                                  Phoebe Fletcher
                                                                  Geopolitics of Energy
                                                                  Phoebe Fletcher
                                                                  Using GoConqr to study geography
                                                                  Sarah Egan
                                                                  A Level: English language and literature technique = Dramatic terms
                                                                  Jessica 'JessieB
                                                                  Biological Psychology - Stress
                                                                  Gurdev Manchanda
                                                                  All AS Maths Equations/Calculations and Questions
                                                                  Continents & Oceans
                                                                  Thomas Yoachim
                                                                  OCR Chemistry - Atoms, Bonds and Groups (Definitions)