Cells And Cell Techniques - Flashcards (AQA AS-Level Biology)


Flashcards for the 'Cells and Cell Techniques' unit in the 2015 AQA AS Biology specification
Henry Kitchen
Flashcards by Henry Kitchen, updated more than 1 year ago
Henry Kitchen
Created by Henry Kitchen about 8 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
What is a prokaryotic organism? A single-celled organism made up of a single prokaryotic cell.
What is a eukaryotic organism? A multi-cellular organism made up of eukaryotic cells.
What is found inside both eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells? Organelles.
Which type of cell is more complex: prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells? Eukaryotic cells are more complex.
Name 4 types of eukaryotic cell. Animal, plant, fungal and algal cells are eukaryotic cells.
Name the 11 organelles found in a typical animal cell. Cell (or plasma) membrane, rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, nucleolus, lysosome, ribosome, nuclear envelope, Golgi apparatus/body, cytoplasm, mitochondrion.
Name the 3 organelles found in plant cells but not in animal cells. Cell wall made of cellulose with plasmodesmata, vacuole and chloroplasts.
What is the function of chloroplasts? To facilitate photosynthesis.
In a plant cell, what do plasmodesmata do? Allow exchange of substance between adjacent cells.
What is the cell membrane and what is its function? Membrane made of lipids and protein Regulates movement of substances in and out of the cell Has receptor molecules on it
What is the nucleus and what is its function? Large organelle surrounded by nuclear envelope (double membrane) which is covered in pores Nucleus contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli Nucleus controls the cell's activities by controlling the transcription of DNA Pores in envelope allow substances (e.g. RNA) to move in and out of the nucleus Nucleoli make ribosomes
What are mitochondria and what is their function? Small, oval-shaped organelles Has a double membrane Inner membrane is folded to form structures called cristae Inside is the matrix which contains enzymes involved in respiration Mitochondria are the site of aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration produces ATP Cells with high energy needs usually have lots of mitochondria
What is a chloroplast and what is its function? Small, flat structures filled with a liquid called stroma found in plant and algal cells Surrounded by a double membrane Contains membranes called thylakoid membranes Thylakoid membranes are stacked up to form grant Grana are linked together by lamellae, thin flat pieces of thylakoid membrane The site of photosynthesis - takes place in the grana or the stroma
What is the Golgi apparatus/body and what is its function? A group of flat membrane-bound sacs of fluid Vesicles are found near the edges of the sacs Processes and packages new lipids and proteins Also makes lysosomes
What is a Golgi vesicle and what is its function? Small fluid-filled sac Found in the cytoplasm Produced by the Golgi apparatus Stores lipids and proteins made by the Golgi apparatus and transports them out of the cell
What is a lysosome and what is its function? Round organelle surrounded with a membrane No clear internal structure Type of Golgi vesicle Contains digestive enzymes called lysosomes Function is to digest invading cells or worn out cell components
What is a ribosome and what is its function? Very small organelle Attached to rough ER or floating in cytoplasm Made of proteins and RNA Does not have a membrane Function is to make proteins
What is a rough endoplasmic reticulum and what is its function? System of membranes filled with fluid Surface covered in ribosomes Function is to fold and process proteins made by the ribosomes
What is the singular of cristae? Crista
What is the difference in structure between rough and smooth endoplasmic reticula? Smooth ER have no ribosomes
What is the function of a smooth endoplasmic reticulum? To synthesise and process lipids
What is a cell wall and what is its function? Rigid structure made of cellulose in plants and algae or chitin in fungi Function is to support cells and prevent them from changing shape
What is a cell vacuole, what type of cell is it found in and what is its function? Membrane-bound organelle found in plant cells Filled with cell sap (solution of sugar and salts) Membrane is called the tonoplast Function is to maintain pressure inside the cell and keep the cell rigid to stop the plant from wilting Also isolates unwanted chemicals inside the cell
What type of cell are bacteria? Prokaryotes
Do prokaryotic cells have a nucleus? No, they have a single long, loose piece of DNA. They also have plasmids, small loops of DNA that aren't part of the main piece of DNA that contain genes like antibiotic resistance. Not all prokaryotes have plasmids
What is a flagellum? A long hair-like structure that rotates to move the cell
What type of cell can have flagella? Prokaryotic
What type of cell always has a cell wall - prokaryotic or eukaryotic? Prokaryotic
Are viruses a type of cell? No. They are acellular
What are viruses? DNA surrounded by protein
Are viruses alive? No
Draw the basic structure of a virus.
What do attachment proteins do? Allow the virus to cling onto host cells
Which is larger - bacteria or viruses? Bacteria
How do you calculate magnification? Magnification = size of image / size of real object
How many micrometers are in 1mm? 1000
How many nanometres are there in 1μm? 1000
How many nanometres are there in 1mm? 1,000,000
Define resolution. The minimum distance between two points or objects at which they can be seen as separated.
Define magnification. The number of times bigger the image appears compared to its actual size.
Which has the highest resolution - optical microscopes or electron microscopes? Why is this so? Electron microscope as the wavelength of an electron beam is less than that of a ray of light.
Which has the highest magnification - optical or electron microscopes? Electron
What is the maximum magnification of an optical microscope? 1500x
Name the two types of electron microscope. Transition and scanning (TEM and SEM)
What are the pros and cons of TEMs? Pros: high resolution, allows you to see inside of cells Cons: samples have to be very thin, can only be used on non-living samples
What are the pros and cons of SEMs? Pros: can be used on thick specimens, produces 3D images Cons: lower resolution than TEMs, can only be used on non-living samples
How do you calculate the magnification of a microscope given the focal lengths of the objective and eyepiece lenses? Magnification = objective lens focal length * eyepiece lens focal length
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